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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A novel method for representing 3D objects that unifies viewer and model centered object representations is presented. A unified 3D frequency-domain representation (called Volumetric Frequency Representation—VFR) encapsulates both the spatial structure of the object and a continuum of its views in the same data structure. The frequency-domain image of an object viewed from any direction can be directly extracted employing an extension of the Projection Slice Theorem, where each Fourier-transformed view is a planar slice of the volumetric frequency representation. The VFR is employed for pose-invariant recognition of complex objects, such as faces. The recognition and pose estimation is based on an efficient matching algorithm in a four-dimensional Fourier space. Experimental examples of pose estimation and recognition of faces in various poses are also presented.</p>
Volumetric frequency representation (VFR), object representation, projection-slice theorem, 4D Fourier space, face pose estimation, pose invariant face recognition.

J. Ben-Arie and D. Nandy, "A Volumetric/Iconic Frequency Domain Representation for Objects With Application for Pose Invariant Face Recognition," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. , pp. 449-457, 1998.
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