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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We provide a generalized image normalization technique which basically solved all problems in image normalization. The orientation of any image can be uniquely defined by at most three non-zero generalized complex (GC) moments. The correctness of our method is demonstrated theoretically as well as in practice by applying them to a number of "degenerate" images which have failed other previously reported techniques for image normalization.</p>
Image normalization, image orientation, invariant image matching, symmetry detection, fold detection, complex moment, rotationally symmetric image.

D. Shen and H. H. Ip, "Generalized Affine Invariant Image Normalization," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. , pp. 431-440, 1997.
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