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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Most document recognition work to date has been performed on English text. Because of the large overlap of the character sets found in English and major Western European languages such as French and German, some extensions of the basic English capability to those languages have taken place. However, automatic language identification prior to optical character recognition is not commonly available and adds utility to such systems.</p><p>Languages and their scripts have attributes that make it possible to determine the language of a document automatically. Detection of the values of these attributes requires the recognition of particular features of the document image and, in the case of languages using Latin-based symbols, the character syntax of the underlying language.</p><p>We have developed techniques for distinguishing which language is represented in an image of text. This work is restricted to a small but important subset of the world's languages. The method first classifies the script into two broad classes: Han-based and Latin-based. This classification is based on the spatial relationships of features related to the upward concavities in character structures. Language identification within the Han script class (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) is performed by analysis of the distribution of optical density in the text images. We handle 23 Latin-based languages using a technique based on character shape codes, a representation of Latin text that is inexpensive to compute.</p>
Multilingual, script classification, machine printed OCR, language classification, Han-based languages, Latin-based languages, Asian scripts.

A. L. Spitz, "Determination of the Script and Language Content of Document Images," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. , pp. 235-245, 1997.
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