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<p><b>Abstract</b>—Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based recognition of handwriting is now quite common, but the incorporation of HMM's into a complex stochastic language model for handwriting recognition is still in its infancy. We have taken advantage of developments in the speech processing field to build a more sophisticated handwriting recognition system. The pattern elements of the handwriting model are subcharacter stroke types modeled by HMM's. These HMM's are concatenated to form letter models, which are further embedded in a stochastic language model. In addition to better language modeling, we introduce new handwriting recognition features of various kinds. Some of these features have invariance properties, and some are segmental, covering a larger region of the input pattern. We have achieved a writer independent recognition rate of 94.5% on 3,823 unconstrained handwritten word samples from 18 writers covering a 32 word vocabulary.</p>
On-line handwriting recognition, hidden Markov models, subcharacter models, evolutional grammar, invariant features, segmental features.

W. Turin, J. Hu and M. K. Brown, "HMM Based On-Line Handwriting Recognition," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. , pp. 1039-1045, 1996.
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