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<p><b>Abstract</b>—On-line dynamic signature verification systems were designed and tested. A data base of more than 10,000 signatures in (<it>x</it>(<it>t</it>), <it>y</it>(<it>t</it>))-form was acquired using a graphics tablet. We extracted a 42-parameter feature set at first, and advanced to a set of 49 normalized features that tolerate inconsistencies in genuine signatures while retaining the power to discriminate against forgeries. We studied algorithms for selecting and perhaps orthogonalizing features in accordance with the availability of training data and the level of system complexity. For decision making we studied several classifiers types. A modified version of our majority classifier yielded 2.5% equal error rate and, more importantly, an asymptotic performance of 7% false acceptance rate at zero false rejection rate, was robust to the speed of genuine signatures, and used only 15 parameter features.</p>
Signature verification, human signature verification, dynamic signature verification, on-line signature verification, point-of-sale, point-of-delivery, forgery.

E. Aviczer, T. Berger and L. L. Lee, "Reliable On-Line Human Signature Verification Systems," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. , pp. 643-647, 1996.
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