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<p><it>Abstract</it>—This paper compares the performances of the binocular cues of stereo and vergence, and the monocular cue of focus for range estimation using an active vision system. The performance of each cue is characterized in terms of sensitivity to errors in the imaging parameters. The effects of random, quantization errors are expressed in terms of the standard deviation of the resulting depth error. The effect of systematic, calibration errors on estimation using each cue is also studied. Performance characterization of each cue is utilized to evaluate the relative performance of the cues. Also discussed, based on such characterization, are ways to select a cue taking into account the computational and reliability aspects of the corresponding estimation process.</p>
Active vision, range from stereo, range from vergence, range from focus, performance evaluation, uncertainty analysis.

N. Ahuja and S. Das, "Performance Analysis of Stereo, Vergence, and Focus as Depth Cues for Active Vision," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 17, no. , pp. 1213-1219, 1995.
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