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<p><it>Abstract</it>—An essential problem in on-line handwriting recognition is the shape variation along with the variety of stroke number and stroke order. In this paper we present a clear and systematic approach to shape matching based on structural feature grouping. To cope with topological deformations caused by stroke connection and breaking, we incorporate some aspects of top-down approaches systematically into the shape matching algorithm. The grouping of local structural features into high-level features is controlled by high-level knowledge as well as the simple geometric conditions. The shape matching algorithm has the following properties from the viewpoint of on-line character recognition: 1) stroke order, direction, and number are free, and 2) stroke connection and breaking are allowed.</p>
Character recognition, handwriting recognition, image matching, shape matching, shape description, shape analysis, structural description.

H. Nishida, "Model-Based Shape Matching with Structural Feature Grouping," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 17, no. , pp. 315-320, 1995.
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