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<p><it>Abstract</it>—A new shape-from-focus method is described which is based on a new concept named Focused Image Surface (FIS). FIS of an object is defined as the surface formed by the set of points at which the object points are focused by a camera lens. According to paraxial-geometric optics, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the shape of an object and the shape of its FIS. Therefore, the problem of shape recovery can be posed as the problem of determining the shape of the FIS. From the shape of FIS the shape of the object is easily obtained. In this paper the shape of the FIS is determined by searching for a shape which maximizes a focus measure. In contrast to previous literature where the focus measure is computed over the planar image detector of the camera, here the focus measure is computed over the FIS. This results in more accurate shape recovery than the traditional methods. Also, using FIS, a more accurate focused image can be reconstructed from a sequence of images than is possible with traditional methods. The new method has been implemented on an actual camera system, and the results of shape recovery and focused image reconstruction are presented.</p>
Shape-from-focus, Focused Image Surface, paraxial-geometric optics, focus measure, camera parameters, shape recovery, focused image reconstruction.

M. Subbarao and T. Choi, "Accurate Recovery of Three-Dimensional Shape from Image Focus," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 17, no. , pp. 266-274, 1995.
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