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<p>Markov random fields are typically used as priors in Bayesian image restoration methods to represent spatial information in the image. Commonly used Markov random fields are not in fact capable of representing the moderate-to-large scale clustering present in naturally occurring images and can also be time consuming to simulate, requiring iterative algorithms which can take hundreds of thousands of sweeps of the image to converge. Markov mesh models, a causal subclass of Markov random fields, are, however, readily simulated. We describe an empirical study of simulated realizations from various models used in the literature, and we introduce some new mesh-type models. We conclude, however, that while large-scale clustering may be represented by such models, strong directional effects are also present for all but very limited parameterizations. It is emphasized that the results do not detract from the use of Markov random fields as representers of local spatial properties, which is their main purpose in the implementation of Bayesian statistical approaches to image analysis. Brief allusion is made to the issue of parameter estimation.</p>
image reconstruction; Bayes methods; Markov processes; Markov random fields; Bayesian image restoration methods; moderate-to-large scale clustering; iterative algorithms; Markov mesh models; strong directional effects; parameter estimation

J. Kay, A. Gray and D. Titterington, "An Empirical Study of the Simulation of Various Models used for Images," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 16, no. , pp. 507-513, 1994.
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