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Green Image
Issue No. 11 - November (1993 vol. 15)
ISSN: 0162-8828
pp: 1202-1208
<p>Witkin (1981) has proposed a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator of surface orientation based on the observed directional bias of projected texture elements. However, a drawback of this procedure is that the estimate is only defined indirectly in terms of a set of nonlinear equations. An alternative method is proposed, which allows an estimate of the surface orientation to be computed directly in a single step from certain simple statistics of the image data. We also show that this direct estimate allows Witkin's ML estimate to be computed to within 0.05 degrees in only two or three iterative steps. The performance of the new estimator is demonstrated experimentally and compared to that of the ML estimator, using both synthetic data and real gray-level images.</p>
shape from texture; maximum likelihood estimator; surface orientation; projected texture elements; nonlinear equations; image data; Witkin method; iterative method; gray-level images; estimation theory; image reconstruction; image texture; iterative methods; probability

J. Garding, "Direct Estimation of Shape from Texture," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. , pp. 1202-1208, 1993.
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