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Green Image
Issue No. 11 - November (1993 vol. 15)
ISSN: 0162-8828
pp: 1162-1173
<p>Page layout analysis is a document processing technique used to determine the format of a page. This paper describes the document spectrum (or docstrum), which is a method for structural page layout analysis based on bottom-up, nearest-neighbor clustering of page components. The method yields an accurate measure of skew, within-line, and between-line spacings and locates text lines and text blocks. It is advantageous over many other methods in three main ways: independence from skew angle, independence from different text spacings, and the ability to process local regions of different text orientations within the same image. Results of the method shown for several different page formats and for randomly oriented subpages on the same image illustrate the versatility of the method. We also discuss the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of the docstrum with respect to other lay-out methods.</p>
document spectrum; nearest-neighbor clustering; document image processing; docstrum; structural page layout analysis; bottom-up method; skew; within-line spacings; between-line spacings; text spacings; document image processing; image segmentation

L. O'Gorman, "The Document Spectrum for Page Layout Analysis," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. , pp. 1162-1173, 1993.
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