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<p>Fractal geometry is becoming increasingly more important in the study of image characteristics. There are numerous methods available to estimate parameters from images of fractal surfaces. A very general technique to calculate numerous fractal features involves the estimation of the mass density function by box counting. The authors analyze the box-counting method, establish a lower bound for the box size, and indicate how algorithms can be improved to give better estimates of fractal features of images. This provides a theoretical basis for a heuristic approach used by C.A. Pickover and A.L. Khorasani (1986).</p>
fractal feature calculation; fractal geometry; box size lower bound; images; image characteristics; fractal surfaces; mass density function; box counting; heuristic approach; feature extraction; fractals; parameter estimation

J. Keller, S. Chen and R. Crownover, "On the Calculation of Fractal Features from Images," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. , pp. 1087-1090, 1993.
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