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<p>A method for feature extraction directly from gray-scale images of scanned documents without the usual step of binarization is presented. This approach eliminates binarization by extracting features directly from gray-scale images. In this method, a digitized gray-scale image is treated as a noisy sampling of the underlying continuous surface and desired features are obtained by extracting and assembling topographic characteristics of this surface. The advantages and effectiveness of the approach are both shown theoretically and demonstrated through preliminary experiments of the proposed method.</p>
direct feature extraction; characteristic assembly; gray-scale extraction; character recognition; continuous surface; topographic characteristics; feature extraction; optical character recognition

L. Wang and T. Pavlidis, "Direct Gray-Scale Extraction of Features for Character Recognition," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. , pp. 1053-1067, 1993.
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