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<p>A camera model that accounts for major sources of camera distortion, namely, radial, decentering, and thin prism distortions is presented. The proposed calibration procedure consists of two steps: (1) the calibration parameters are estimated using a closed-form solution based on a distribution-free camera model; and (2) the parameters estimated in the first step are improved iteratively through a nonlinear optimization, taking into account camera distortions. According to minimum variance estimation, the objective function to be minimized is the mean-square discrepancy between the observed image points and their inferred image projections computed with the estimated calibration parameters. The authors introduce a type of measure that can be used to directly evaluate the performance of calibration and compare calibrations among different systems. The validity and performance of the calibration procedure are tested with both synthetic data and real images taken by tele- and wide-angle lenses.</p>
camera calibration; CCD camera; computer vision; distortion models; accuracy; closed-form solution; nonlinear optimization; objective function; mean-square discrepancy; observed image points; inferred image projections; calibration; cameras; CCD image sensors; computer vision; optical information processing; optimisation

J. Weng, P. Cohen and M. Herniou, "Camera Calibration with Distortion Models and Accuracy Evaluation," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, no. , pp. 965-980, 1992.
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