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<p>Reflectance models based on physical optics and geometrical optics are studied. Specifically, the authors consider the Beckmann-Spizzichino (physical optics) model and the Torrance-Sparrow (geometrical optics) model. These two models were chosen because they have been reported to fit experimental data well. Each model is described in detail, and the conditions that determine the validity of the model are clearly stated. By studying reflectance curves predicted by the two models, the authors propose a reflectance framework comprising three components: the diffuse lobe, the specular lobe, and the specular spike. The effects of surface roughness on the three primary components are analyzed in detail.</p>
surface reflection; Beckmann-Spizzichino model; Torrance-Sparrow model; machine vision; physical optics; geometrical optics; reflectance; diffuse lobe; specular lobe; specular spike; surface roughness; geometrical optics; light reflection; optical information processing; reflectivity

K. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade and S. Nayar, "Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 13, no. , pp. 611-634, 1991.
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