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<p>A novel approach to camera calibration by vanishing lines is proposed. Calibrated parameters include the orientation, position, and focal length of a camera. A hexagon is used as the calibration target to generate a vanishing line of the ground plane from its projected image. It is shown that the vanishing line includes useful geometric hints about the camera orientation parameters and the focal length, from which the orientation parameters can be solved easily and analytically. And the camera position parameters can be calibrated by the use of related geometric projective relationships. The simplicity of the target eliminates the complexity of the environment setup and simplifies the feature extraction in relevant image processing. The calibration formulas are also simple to compute. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach.</p>
3D computer vision; vanishing lines; camera calibration; hexagon; projected image; focal length; geometric projective relationships; feature extraction; image processing; calibration; computational geometry; computer vision; computerised picture processing; television cameras

W. Tsai and L. Wang, "Camera Calibration by Vanishing Lines for 3-D Computer Vision," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 13, no. , pp. 370-376, 1991.
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