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<p>The method of Fourier descriptors is extended to produce a set of normalized coefficients which are invariant under any affine transformation (translation, rotation, scaling, and shearing). The method is based on a parameterized boundary description which is transformed to the Fourier domain and normalized there to eliminate dependencies on the affine transformation and on the starting point. Invariance to affine transforms allows considerable robustness when applied to images of objects which rotate in all three dimensions, as is demonstrated by processing silhouettes of aircraft maneuvering in three-space.</p>
3D object recognition; invariance; affine-invariant Fourier descriptors; boundary description; affine transformation; silhouettes; Fourier analysis; pattern recognition; picture processing

H. Burkhardt, K. Arbter, G. Hirzinger and W. Snyder, "Application of Affine-Invariant Fourier Descriptors to Recognition of 3-D Objects," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 12, no. , pp. 640-647, 1990.
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