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<p>The generic issue of clustering/grouping is addressed. Recent research, both in computer and human vision, suggests the use of joint spatial/spatial-frequency (s/sf) representations. The spectrogram, the difference of Gaussians representation, the Gabor representation, and the Wigner distribution are discussed and compared. It is noted that the Wigner distribution gives superior joint resolution. Experimental results in the area of texture segmentation and Gestalt grouping using the Wigner distribution are presented, proving the feasibility of using s/sf representations for low-level (early, preattentive) vision.</p>
low-level vision; early vision; preattentive vision; pattern recognition; textured images; Gestalt organization; spatial-frequency representations; clustering; grouping; spectrogram; difference of Gaussians representation; Gabor representation; Wigner distribution; joint resolution; texture segmentation; pattern recognition; statistics

T. Reed and H. Wechsler, "Segmentation of Textured Images and Gestalt Organization Using Spatial/Spatial-Frequency Representations," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 12, no. , pp. 1-12, 1990.
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