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<p>Simple top-down pointer-based quadtree traversal algorithms for four-neighbor traversal, eight-neighbor traversal, and connected-component labeling are proposed. It is shown that for this class of algorithms there exist efficient pointer-based representations that can require as little as 2N bytes, where N is total number of nodes in the tree. The algorithms can also be implemented using a depth-first quadtree representation, at the cost of additional nonrecursive walks over the data structure to locate the arbitrary sons of interior nodes.</p>
computerized picture processing; computerized pattern recognition; depth-first representations; quadtree traversal algorithms; connected-component labeling; pointer-based representations; nodes; data structure; computerised pattern recognition; computerised picture processing; trees (mathematics)

D. Fuhrmann, "Quadtree Traversal Algorithms for Pointer-Based and Depth-First Representations," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol. 10, no. , pp. 955-960, 1988.
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