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Recent studies have demonstrated that mobile elements (MEs) are an efficient solution to help decrease dramatically energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, in most of cases, sensors use duty cycle schemes to save energy, and unless the ME mobility pattern is deterministic, each sensor node has to discover the presence of the ME in the nearby area before starting to exchange data with it. Therefore, in such wireless sensor networks with mobile elements (in short, WSN-MEs), the definition and analysis of a protocol for efficient ME discovery becomes of fundamental importance. In this paper, we propose an extensive performance analysis of an easy-to-implement, hierarchical discovery protocol for WSN-MEs, called Dual Beacon Discovery (2BD) protocol, taking into account stochastic, multi-path, variable speed ME mobility patterns. We also derive the optimal parameter values that minimize the energy consumption of sensor nodes, while guaranteeing the minimum node throughput required by the applications under consideration. Finally, we compare the 2BD protocol with a classical solution based on Periodic Listening (PL). Our results show that 2BD can exploit its hierarchical mechanism and thus significantly increase lifetime, especially when the ME discovery phase is relatively long.
wireless sensor networks, energy consumption, optimisation, protocols,periodic listening, mobile element discovery, energy consumption, wireless sensor networks, hierarchical discovery protocol, dual beacon discovery protocol,Protocols, Wireless sensor networks, Mobile computing, Mobile communication, Analytical models, Optimization, Energy consumption,Network Protocols, Communication/Networking and Information Technology,throughput optimization, Wireless sensor networks, mobile sink discovery, energy efficiency
"Analysis and Optimization of a Protocol for Mobile Element Discovery in Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 13, no. , pp. 1942-1954, Sept. 2014, doi:10.1109/TMC.2013.88
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