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Issue No. 08 - Aug. (2014 vol. 13)
ISSN: 1536-1233
pp: 1787-1800
Maurizio Bocca , Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Ossi Kaltiokallio , Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland
Neal Patwari , Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah
Suresh Venkatasubramanian , School of Computing, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
RF sensor networks are wireless networks that can localize and track people (or targets) without needing them to carry or wear any electronic device. They use the change in the received signal strength (RSS) of the links due to the movements of people to infer their locations. In this paper, we consider real-time multiple target tracking with RF sensor networks. We apply radio tomographic imaging (RTI), which generates images of the change in the propagation field, as if they were frames of a video. Our RTI method uses RSS measurements on multiple frequency channels on each link, combining them with a fade level-based weighted average. We introduce methods, inspired by machine vision and adapted to the peculiarities of RTI, that enable accurate and real-time multiple target tracking. Several tests are performed in an open environment, a one-bedroom apartment, and a cluttered office environment. The results demonstrate that the system is capable of accurately tracking in real-time up to four targets in cluttered indoor environments, even when their trajectories intersect multiple times, without mis-estimating the number of targets found in the monitored area. The highest average tracking error measured in the tests is 0.45 m with two targets, 0.46 m with three targets, and 0.55 m with four targets.
Target tracking, Monitoring, Head, Frequency measurement, Trajectory, Real-time systems, Noise

M. Bocca, O. Kaltiokallio, N. Patwari and S. Venkatasubramanian, "Multiple Target Tracking with RF Sensor Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1787-1800, 2014.
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