The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.06 - June (2013 vol.12)
pp: 1107-1119
Chul-Ho Lee , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Do Young Eun , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
In this paper, we focus on how the heterogeneous contact dynamics of mobile nodes impact the performance of forwarding algorithms in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs). To this end, we consider two representative heterogeneous network models, each of which captures heterogeneity among node pairs (individual) and heterogeneity in underlying environment (spatial), respectively, and examine the full extent of difference in delay performance they cause on forwarding algorithms through formal stochastic comparisons. We first show that these heterogeneous models correctly capture non-Poisson contact dynamics observed in real traces. We then rigorously establish stochastic/convex ordering relationships on the delay performance of direct forwarding and multicopy two-hop relay protocol under these heterogeneous models and the corresponding homogeneous model, all of which have the same average intercontact time of a random pair of nodes. In particular, we demonstrate that the heterogeneous models predict an entirely opposite ordering relationship in delay performance depending on which of the two heterogeneity structures is captured. We also provide simulation results including the delay performance of epidemic routing protocol to support the analytical findings. Our results thus suggest that the heterogeneity in mobile nodes' contact dynamics should be properly taken into account for the performance evaluation of forwarding algorithms. Our results will also be useful for better design of forwarding algorithms correctly exploiting the heterogeneity structure.
Mobile communication, Mobile computing, Delay, Relays, Heuristic algorithms, Stochastic processes, Protocols, stochastic/convex ordering relationships, Mobile opportunistic networks, heterogeneous contact dynamics, non-Poisson contact dynamics, forwarding performance
Chul-Ho Lee, Do Young Eun, "On the Forwarding Performance under Heterogeneous Contact Dynamics in Mobile Opportunistic Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.12, no. 6, pp. 1107-1119, June 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.84
[1] C.H. Lee and D.Y. Eun, "Heterogeneity in Contact Dynamics: Helpful or Harmful to Forwarding Algorithms in DTNs?" Proc. Seventh Int'l Symp. Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), June 2009.
[2] A. Vahdat and D. Becker, "Epidemic Routing for Partially-Connected Ad Hoc Networks," Technical Report CS-200006, Duke Univ., Apr. 2000.
[3] M. Grossglauser and D.N.C. Tse, "Mobility Increases the Capacity of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 477-486, Aug. 2002.
[4] R. Groenevelt, G. Koole, and P. Nain, "Message Delay in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Performance Evaluation, vol. 62, pp. 210-228, Oct. 2005.
[5] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Spray and Wait: An Efficient Routing Scheme for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Delay-Tolerant Networking (WDTN), Aug. 2005.
[6] A. Jindal and K. Psounis, "Performance Analysis of Epidemic Routing Under Contention," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing (IWCMC), July 2006.
[7] X. Zhang, G. Neglia, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "Performance Modeling of Epidemic Routing," Computer Networks, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2867-2891, 2007.
[8] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Efficient Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks: The Multiple-Copy Case," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 77-90, Feb. 2008.
[9] T. Karagiannis, J.Y. Le Boudec, and M. Vojnovic, "Power Law and Exponential Decay of Inter Contact Times between Mobile Devices," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2007.
[10] H. Cai and D.Y. Eun, "Crossing over the Bounded Domain: From Exponential to Power-Law Inter-Meeting Time in MANET," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2007.
[11] T. Small and Z.J. Haas, "Resource and Performance Tradeoffs in Delay-Tolerant Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Delay-Tolerant Networking (WDTN), Aug. 2005.
[12] G. Neglia and X. Zhang, "Optimal Delay-Power Tradeoff in Sparse Delay Tolerant Networks: A Preliminary Study," Proc. SIGCOMM Workshop Challenged Networks (CHANTS), Sept. 2006.
[13] E. Altman, T. Basar, and F.D. Pellegrini, "Optimal Monotone Forwarding Policies in Delay Tolerant Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Workshop Interdisciplinary Systems Approach in Performance Evaluation and Design of Computer and Comm. Systems (InterPerf), Oct. 2008.
[14] O. Helgason and G. Karlsson, "On the Effect of Cooperation in Wireless Content Distribution," Proc. IEEE/IFIP Fifth Ann.Conf. Wireless on Demand Network Systems and Services (WONS), Jan. 2008.
[15] W. Hsu, K. Merchant, C. Hsu, and A. Helmy, "Weighted Waypoint Mobility Model and its Impact on Ad Hoc Networks," ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 9, pp. 59-63, Jan. 2005.
[16] N. Sarafijanovic-Djukic, M. Piorkowski, and M. Grossglauser, "Island Hopping: Efficient Mobility-Assisted Forwarding in Partitioned Networks," Proc. Third Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), Sept. 2006.
[17] V. Conan, J. Leguay, and T. Friedman, "Characterizing Pairwise intercontact Patterns in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. First Int'l Conf. Autonomic Computing and Comm. Systems (Autonomics), Oct. 2007.
[18] P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, and E. Yoneki, "BUBBLE Rap: Social-Based Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, May 2008.
[19] N. Banerjee, M.D. Corner, D. Towsley, and B.N. Levine, "Relays, Base Stations, and Meshes: Enhancing Mobile Networks with Infrastructure," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2008.
[20] M. Piorkowski, N. Sarafijanovic-Djukic, and M. Grossglauser, "A Parsimonious Model of Mobile Partitioned Networks with Clustering," Proc. First Int'l Comm. Systems and Networks and Workshops (COMSNETS), Jan. 2009.
[21] H. Cai and D.Y. Eun, "Toward Stochastic Anatomy of Inter-Meeting Time Distribution under General Mobility Models," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, May 2008.
[22] M. Musolesi and C. Mascolo, "A Community Based Mobility Model for Ad Hoc Network Research," Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks: From Theory to Reality (REALMAN), May 2006.
[23] E.M. Daly and M. Haahr, "Social Network Analysis for Routing in Disconnected Delay-Tolerant Manets," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, Sept. 2007.
[24] Y.K. Ip, W.C. Lau, and O.C. Yue, "Performance Modeling of Epidemic Routing with Heterogeneous Node Types," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC), May 2008.
[25] V. Conan, J. Leguay, and T. Friedman, "Fixed Point Opportunistic Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 773-782, June 2008.
[26] W. Gao, G. Li, B. Zhao, and G. Cao, "Multicasting in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Social Network Perspective," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, May 2009.
[27] T. Spyropoulos, T. Turletti, and K. Obraczka, "Routing in Delay-Tolerant Networks Comprising Heterogeneous Node Populations," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1132-1147, Aug. 2009.
[28] A. Chaintreau, J.Y. Le Boudec, and N. Ristanovic, "The Age of Gossip: Spatial Mean Field Regime," Proc. ACM 11th Int'l Joint Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (Sigmetrics), June 2009.
[29] A.A. Hanbali, A.A. Kherani, and P. Nain, "Simple Models for the Performance Evaluation of a Class of Two-Hop Relay Protocols," Proc. Sixth Int'l IFIP-TC6 Conf. Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet (Networking), May 2007.
[30] M. Ibrahim, A.A. Hanbali, and P. Nain, "Delay and Resource Analysis in MANETs in Presence of Throwboxes," Performance Evaluation, vol. 64, nos. 9-12, pp. 933-947, 2007.
[31] A. Feldmann and W. Whitt, "Fitting Mixtures of Exponentials to Long-Tail Distributions to Analyze Network Performance Models," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 1997.
[32] M. Shaked and J.G. Shanthikumar, Stochastic Orders and Their Applications. Academic, 1994.
[33] A. Chaintreau, P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, C. Diot, R. Gass, and J. Scott, "Impact of Human Mobility on the Design of Opportunistic Forwarding Algorithms," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.
[34] A.W. Marshall and I. Olkin, Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and Its Applications. Academic, 1979.
[35] S.M. Ross, Stochastic Processes, second ed. John Wiley & Son, 1996.
[36] P. Brémaud, Markov Chains: Gibbs Fields, Monte Carlo Simulation, and Queues. Springer-Verlag, 1999.
[37] W. Fischer and K. Meier-Hellstern, "The Markov-Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) Cookbook," Performance Evaluation, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 149-171, 1993.
[38] M. Neuts, Structured Stochastic Matrices of M/G/1 Type and Their Applications. Marcel Dekker, 1989.
[39] G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, third ed. Harcourt Brace Jova novich, 1988.
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool