Issue No. 03 - March (2013 vol. 12)
DOI Bookmark: http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TMC.2012.20
S. S. Kanhere , Sch. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Quanjun Chen , Australian Centre for Field Robot. (ACFR), Univ. of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
M. Hassan , Sch. of Comput. Sci. & Eng., Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
In geographic routing, nodes need to maintain up-to-date positions of their immediate neighbors for making effective forwarding decisions. Periodic broadcasting of beacon packets that contain the geographic location coordinates of the nodes is a popular method used by most geographic routing protocols to maintain neighbor positions. We contend and demonstrate that periodic beaconing regardless of the node mobility and traffic patterns in the network is not attractive from both update cost and routing performance points of view. We propose the Adaptive Position Update (APU) strategy for geographic routing, which dynamically adjusts the frequency of position updates based on the mobility dynamics of the nodes and the forwarding patterns in the network. APU is based on two simple principles: 1) nodes whose movements are harder to predict update their positions more frequently (and vice versa), and (ii) nodes closer to forwarding paths update their positions more frequently (and vice versa). Our theoretical analysis, which is validated by NS2 simulations of a well-known geographic routing protocol, Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol (GPSR), shows that APU can significantly reduce the update cost and improve the routing performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in comparison with periodic beaconing and other recently proposed updating schemes. The benefits of APU are further confirmed by undertaking evaluations in realistic network scenarios, which account for localization error, realistic radio propagation, and sparse network.
telecommunication traffic, broadcasting, mobile ad hoc networks, radiowave propagation, routing protocols, sparse network, adaptive position update, mobile ad hoc networks, forwarding decisions, periodic broadcasting, beacon packets, geographic location coordinates, geographic routing protocols, periodic beaconing, node mobility, traffic patterns, routing performance, APU strategy, position updates, mobility dynamics, forwarding patterns, NS2 simulations, greedy perimeter stateless routing protocol, GPSR, packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, updating schemes, realistic network scenarios, localization error, realistic radio propagation, Topology, Routing protocols, Routing, Network topology, Mobile computing, Accuracy, Mobile communication, routing protocols, Wireless communication, algorithm/protocol design and analysis
S. S. Kanhere, Quanjun Chen, M. Hassan, "Adaptive Position Update for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 12, no. , pp. 489-501, March 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.20