The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.11 - Nov. (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1763-1774
Yuanqing Zheng , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Mo Li , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Estimating the number of RFID tags in the region of interest is an important task in many RFID applications. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for efficiently estimating the approximate number of RFID tags. Compared with existing approaches, the proposed Probabilistic Estimating Tree (PET) protocol achieves {\cal O}(\log \log n) estimation efficiency, which remarkably reduces the estimation time while meeting the accuracy requirement. PET also largely reduces the computation and memory overhead at RFID tags. As a result, we are able to apply PET with passive RFID tags and provide scalable and inexpensive solutions for large-scale RFID systems. We validate the efficacy and effectiveness of PET through theoretical analysis as well as extensive simulations. Our results suggest that PET outperforms existing approaches in terms of estimation accuracy, efficiency, and overhead.
RFID tags, Positron emission tomography, Estimation, Protocols, Probabilistic logic, Accuracy, aloha networks, RFID systems, tag estimation
Yuanqing Zheng, Mo Li, "PET: Probabilistic Estimating Tree for Large-Scale RFID Estimation", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 11, pp. 1763-1774, Nov. 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.238
[1] "EPC Radio-Frequency Identity Protocols Class-1 Gen-2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860MHz-960MHz, EPCglobal," , Apr. 2011.
[2] M. Abramowitz and I.A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. Dover, 1972.
[3] J.I. Capetanakis, "Tree Algorithms for Packet Broadcast Channels," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 505-515, Sept. 1979.
[4] J. Considine, F. Li, G. Kollios, and J. Byers, "Approximate Aggregation Techniques for Sensor Databases," Proc. IEEE 20th Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE '04), 2004.
[5] M. Durand and P. Flajolet, "Loglog Counting of Large Cardinalities (Extended Abstract)," Proc. 11th Ann. European Symp. Algorithms (ESA), 2003.
[6] K. Finkenzeller, RFID Handbook: Radio-Frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
[7] P. Flajolet, X. Gourdon, and P. Dumas, "Mellin Transforms and Asymptotics: Harmonic Sums," Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 144, nos. 1/2, pp. 3-58, 1995.
[8] P. Flajolet and G.N. Martin, "Probabilistic Counting Algorithms for Data Base Applications," J. Computer and System Science, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 182-209, 1985.
[9] S. Ganguly, M. Garofalakis, and R. Rastogi, "Processing Set Expressions over Continuous Update Streams," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data (SIGMOD '03), 2003.
[10] G.R. Grimmett and D.R. Stirzaker, Probability and Random Processes, third ed. Oxford Univ., 2001.
[11] P.J. Haas, J.F. Naughton, S. Seshadri, and L. Stokes, "Sampling-Based Estimation of the Number of Distinct Values of an Attribute," Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Very Large Data Bases (VLDB '95), 1995.
[12] H. Han, B. Sheng, C.C. Tan, Q. Li, W. Mao, and S. Lu, "Counting RFID Tags Efficiently and Anonymously," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[13] P. Kirschenhofer and H. Prodinger, "On the Analysis of Probabilistic Counting," Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 1452, pp. 117-120, 1990.
[14] D.E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming: Sorting and Searching, second ed., vol. 3, Addison-Wesley, 1998.
[15] M. Kodialam and T. Nandagopal, "Fast and Reliable Estimation Schemes in RFID Systems," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2006.
[16] M. Kodialam, T. Nandagopal, and W.C. Lau, "Anonymous Tracking Using RFID Tags," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
[17] C.-H. Lee and C.-W. Chung, "Efficient Storage Scheme and Query Processing for Supply Chain Management Using RFID," Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data, 2008.
[18] J. Lee, T. Kwon, Y. Choi, S.K. Das, and K.-a. Kim, "Analysis of RFID Anti-Collision Algorithms Using Smart Antennas," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '04), 2004.
[19] Y. Liu, L. Chen, J. Pei, Q. Chen, and Y. Zhao, "Mining Frequent Trajectory Patterns for Activity Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Tag Arrays," Proc. IEEE Fifth Ann. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '07), 2007.
[20] L. Lu, Y. Liu, X. Li, "Refresh: Weak Privacy Model for RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[21] J. Myung and W. Lee, "Adaptive Splitting Protocols for RFID Tag Collision Arbitration," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2006.
[22] V. Namboodiri and L. Gao, "Energy-Aware Tag Anti-Collision Protocols for RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE Fifth Ann. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '07), 2007.
[23] L.M. Ni, Y. Liu, Y.C. Lau, and A. Patil, "LANDMARC: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID," Proc. IEEE First Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '03), 2003.
[24] C. Qian, H. Ngan, and Y. Liu, "Cardinality Estimation for Large-Scale RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE Sixth Ann. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '08), 2008.
[25] C. Qian, Y. Liu, H. Ngan, and L.M. Ni, "ASAP: Scalable Identification and Counting for Contactless RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE 30th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '10), 2010.
[26] L.G. Roberts, "Aloha Packet System with and without Slots and Capture," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 28-42, 1975.
[27] T.A. Scharfeld, "An Analysis of the Fundamental Constraints on Low Cost Passive Radio-Frequency Identification System Design," M.S. thesis, Massachusetts Inst. of Tech nology, 2001.
[28] B. Sheng, Q. Li, W. Mao, "Efficient Continuous Scanning in RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[29] C.C. Tan, B. Sheng, and Q. Li, "Serverless Search and Authentication Protocols for RFID," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm., 2007.
[30] C.C. Tan, B. Sheng, and Q. Li, "How to Monitor for Missing RFID Tags," Proc. 28th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '08), 2008.
[31] H. Tijms, Understanding Probability: Chance Rules in Every Life. Cambridge Univ., 2004.
[32] R. Want, "An Introduction to RFID Technology," IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 25-33, Jan.-Mar. 2005.
[33] L. Xie, B. Sheng, C.C. Tan, H. Han, Q. Li, and D. Chen, "Efficient Tag Identification in Mobile RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[34] X. Xu, L. Gu, J. Wang, and G. Xing, "Negotiate Power and Performance in the Reality of RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom), 2010.
[35] L. Yang, J. Han, Y. Qi, and Y. Liu, "Identification-Free Batch Authentication for RFID Tags," Proc. IEEE 18th Int'l Conf. Network Protocol (ICNP), 2010.
[36] D. Zhang, J. Ma, Q. Chen, and L.M. Ni, "An RF-Based System for Tracking Transceiver-Free Objects," Proc. IEEE Fifth Ann. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '07), 2007.
[37] R. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, and J. Sun, "Fast Identification of the Missing Tags in a Large RFID System," Proc. IEEE Eighth Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh, and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), 2011.
[38] F. Zhou, C. Chen, D. Jin, C. Huang, and H. Min, "Evaluating and Optimizing Power Consumption of Anti-Collision Protocols for Applications in RFID Systems," Proc. Int'l Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), 2004.
36 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool