The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.10 - Oct. (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1569-1584
Chi-Mao Lee , Department of Electrical Engineering, Hsinchu
Jia-Shi Lin , Department of Electrical Engineering, Hsinchu
Kai-Ten Feng , National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu
Chung-Ju Chang , National Chiao Tung University , Hsin-Chu
In recent years, channel-hopping-based medium access control protocols have been proposed to improve the capacity in a decentralized multichannel cognitive radio (CR) network without using extra control channels. Each CR user has to stochastically follow a default channel-hopping sequence in order to locate a channel and conduct its frame transmission. In this paper, theoretical analysis is conducted on the probability of channel availability and the average frame delay for primary users (PUs) by considering the impact caused by imperfect sensing of CR users and imperfect synchronization between the primary and CR networks. According to the proposed analytical model with realistic considerations, an optimal channel-hopping sequence (OCS) approach is designed for the CR users based on a dynamic programming technique. It is designed by exploiting the optimal load balance between channel availability and channel utilization within the delay constraints of PUs. By adopting the OCS approach, maximum aggregate throughput of CR users can be achieved while considering PU's quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. Moreover, in addition to the paired CR networks, the logical partition problem that occurs in generalized CR networks will also be addressed. This problem can severely degrade the aggregate throughput due to the decreased probability of connectivity between CR users, especially in a CR network with heavy traffic. Therefore, both wake-up successive contention (WSC) and wake-up counter-reset successive contention (WCSC) algorithms are proposed to increase the number of negotiations by both exploring the blind spot of imperfect sensing and amending the contention mechanisms between CR users. Compared to conventional channel-hopping sequences, numerical results illustrate that the proposed approaches can effectively maximize aggregate throughput for CR users under the QoS requirements of PUs.
Sensors, Throughput, Availability, Protocols, Synchronization, Receivers, Aggregates, dynamic programming., Cognitive radio, queuing networks, channel-hopping sequence
Chi-Mao Lee, Jia-Shi Lin, Kai-Ten Feng, Chung-Ju Chang, "Design and Analysis of Transmission Strategies in Channel-Hopping Cognitive Radio Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 10, pp. 1569-1584, Oct. 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.205
[1] Fed. Comm. Commission, "Spectrum Policy Task Force Report, FCC 02-155," Nov. 2002.
[2] S. Haykin, "Cognitive Radio: Brain-Empowered Wireless Communications," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201-220, Feb. 2005.
[3] C.R. Stevenson, G. Chouinard, Z. Lei, W. Hu, S.J. Shellhammer, and W. Caldwell, "IEEE 802.22: The First Cognitive Radio Wireless Regional Area Network Standard," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 130-138, Jan. 2009.
[4] IEEE 802.22 Wireless RAN, Std., Functional Requirements for the 802.22 WRAN Standard, IEEE 802.22- 05/0007r46, IEEE, Oct. 2005.
[5] I.F. Akyildiz, W.Y. Lee, M.C. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, "Next Generation/Dynamic Spectrum Access/Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks: A Survey," Computer Networks, vol. 50, pp. 2127-2159, Sept. 2006.
[6] S. Srinivasa and S.A. Jafar, "How Much Spectrum Sharing Is Optimal in Cognitive Radio Networks?" IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 4010-4018, Oct. 2008.
[7] A.C.-C. Hsu, D.S.L. Wei, and C.-C.J. Kuo, "A Cognitive MAC Protocol Using Statistical Channel Allocation for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (NWCNC), pp. 105-110, Mar. 2007.
[8] A.L. Yau, P. Komisarczuk, and P.D. Teal, "On Multi-Channel MAC Protocols in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. Australasian Telecomm. Networks and Applications Conf. (ATNAC), pp. 300-305, Dec. 2008.
[9] Q. Zhao, L. Tong, A. Swami, and Y. Chen, "Decentralized Cognitive MAC for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Ad Hoc Networks: A POMDP Framework," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 589-600, Apr. 2007.
[10] J. Jia, Q. Zhang, and X. Shen, "HC-MAC: A Hardware-Constrained Cognitive MAC for Efficient Spectrum Management," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 106-117, Jan. 2008.
[11] H. Su and X. Zhang, "Channel-Hopping Based Single Transceiver MAC for Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. 42nd Ann. Conf. Information Sciences and Systems (CISS), pp. 197-202, Mar. 2008.
[12] L. Le and E. Hossain, "OSA: A MAC Protocol for Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), pp. 1426-1430, Apr. 2008.
[13] J. Cai and A.S. Alfa, "Optimal Channel Sensing in Wireless Communication Networks with Cognitive Radio," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC), pp. 1-5, June 2009.
[14] C. Xin and X. Cao, "A Cognitive Radio Network Architecture without Control Channel," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom, pp. 1-6, Dec. 2009.
[15] P. Bahl, R. Chandra, and J. Dunagan, "SSCH: Slotted Seeded Channel Hopping for Capacity Improvement in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 216-230, 2004.
[16] C.-M. Lee, J.-S. Lin, Y.-P. Hsu, and K.-T. Feng, "Design and Analysis of Optimal Channel-Hopping Sequence for Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), pp. 1-6, Apr. 2010.
[17] J. Gambini, O. Simeone, Y. Bar-Ness, U. Spagnolini, and T. Yu, "Packet-Wise Vertical Handover for Unlicensed Multi-Standard Spectrum Access with Cognitive Radios," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5172-5176, Dec. 2008.
[18] I. Suliman and J. Lehtomaki, "Optimizing Detection Parameters for Time-Slotted Cognitive Radios," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC), pp. 1-4, Apr. 2009.
[19] "3GPP TR36.814 v9.0.0 Release 9," technical report, Mar. 2010.
[20] Y.-C. Liang, Y. Zeng, E.C.Y. Peh, and A.T. Hoang, "Sensing-Throughput Tradeoff for Cognitive Radio Networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1326-1337, Apr. 2008.
[21] A. Ghasemi and E.S. Sousa, "Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Requirements, Challenges and Design Trade-Offs," IEEE Comm. Mag., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 32-39, Apr. 2008.
[22] S. Zheng, Y.-C. Liang, P.Y. Kam, and A.T. Hoang, "Cross-Layered Design of Spectrum Sensing and MAC for Opportunistic Spectrum Access," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), pp. 1-6, Apr. 2009.
[23] A. Gravey and G. Hebuterne, "Simultaneity in Discrete-Time Single Server Queues with Bernoulli Inputs," Performance Evaluation, vol. 14, pp. 123-131, Jan. 1992.
[24] T. Meisling, "Discrete-Time Queuing Theory," Operations Research, vol. 6, pp. 96-105, Jan. 1958.
[25] D. Gross and C.M. Harris, Fundamentals of Queuing Theory, fourth ed. Wiley, 2008.
[26] A.T. Hoang, D.T.C. Wong, and Y.-C. Liang, "Design and Analysis for an 802.11-Based Cognitive Radio Network," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), pp. 1-6, Apr. 2009.
[27] IEEE Std 802.11b-1999 (R2003): Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Higher-Speed Physical Layer Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band, IEEE, 2003.
[28] A.V. Adamis, K.N. Maliatsos, and P. Constantinou, "Methods for Reducing Interference Caused to Licensed Systems by Overlay-CSMA/CA Cognitive Radios," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Comm. (CROWNCOM), pp. 1-6, May 2008.
[29] D. Bertsekas, Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control, third ed. Athena Scientific, 2005.
[30] L. Gao and S. Cui, "Power and Rate Control for Delay-Constrained Cognitive Radios via Dynamic Programming," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 4819-4827, Nov. 2009.
[31] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, and C. Steinyd, Introduction to Algorithms, third ed. The MIT Press, 2009.
13 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool