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Issue No. 05 - May (2012 vol. 11)
ISSN: 1536-1233
pp: 865-877
Yang Zhao , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Neal Patwari , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Piyush Agrawal , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Michael G. Rabbat , McGill University, Montréal
Tracking of people via active badges is important for location-aware computing and for security applications. However, the human body has a major effect on the antenna gain pattern of the device that the person is wearing. In this paper, the gain pattern due to the effect of the human body is experimentally measured and represented by a first-order directional gain pattern model. A method is presented to estimate the model parameters from multiple received signal strength (RSS) measurements. An alternating gain and position estimation (AGAPE) algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the orientation and the position of the badge using RSS measurements at known-position anchor nodes. Lower bounds on mean squared error (MSE) and experimental results are presented that both show that the accuracy of position estimates can be greatly improved by including orientation estimates in the localization system. Next, we propose a new tracking filter that accepts orientation estimates as input, which we call the orientation-enhanced extended Kalman filter (OE-EKF), which improves tracking accuracy in active RFID tracking systems.
Wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, localization, tracking.

M. G. Rabbat, Y. Zhao, P. Agrawal and N. Patwari, "Directed by Directionality: Benefiting from the Gain Pattern of Active RFID Badges," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 11, no. , pp. 865-877, 2011.
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