The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.05 - May (2012 vol.11)
pp: 865-877
Yang Zhao , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Neal Patwari , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Piyush Agrawal , University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Michael G. Rabbat , McGill University, Montréal
Tracking of people via active badges is important for location-aware computing and for security applications. However, the human body has a major effect on the antenna gain pattern of the device that the person is wearing. In this paper, the gain pattern due to the effect of the human body is experimentally measured and represented by a first-order directional gain pattern model. A method is presented to estimate the model parameters from multiple received signal strength (RSS) measurements. An alternating gain and position estimation (AGAPE) algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the orientation and the position of the badge using RSS measurements at known-position anchor nodes. Lower bounds on mean squared error (MSE) and experimental results are presented that both show that the accuracy of position estimates can be greatly improved by including orientation estimates in the localization system. Next, we propose a new tracking filter that accepts orientation estimates as input, which we call the orientation-enhanced extended Kalman filter (OE-EKF), which improves tracking accuracy in active RFID tracking systems.
Wireless sensor networks, radio propagation, localization, tracking.
Yang Zhao, Neal Patwari, Piyush Agrawal, Michael G. Rabbat, "Directed by Directionality: Benefiting from the Gain Pattern of Active RFID Badges", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 5, pp. 865-877, May 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.89
[1] P. Bahl and V.N. Padmanabhan, "RADAR: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 775-784, 2000.
[2] N. Patwari, J. Ash, S. Kyperountas, R.M. Moses, A.O. HeroIII, and N.S. Correal, "Locating the Nodes: Cooperative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 54-69, July 2005.
[3] M. Jensen and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "EM Interaction of Handset Antennas and a Human in Personal Communications," Proc. IEEE, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 7-17, Jan. 1995.
[4] J. Griffin and G. Durgin, "Complete Link Budgets for Backscatter Radio and RFID Systems," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 11-25, Apr. 2009.
[5] T. King, S. Kopf, T. Haenselmann, C. Lubberger, and W. Effelsberg, "COMPASS: A Probabilistic Indoor Positioning System Based on 802.11 and Digital Compasses," Proc. ACM First Int'l Workshop Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation & Characterization (WiNTECH '06), Sept. 2007.
[6] N. Patwari, A.O. Hero III, M. Perkins, N. Correal, and R.J. O'Dea, "Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2137-2148, Aug. 2003.
[7] T. Roos, P. Myllymki, H. Tirri, P. Misikangas, and J. Sievnen, "A Probabilistic Approach to WLAN User Location Estimation," Int'l J. Wireless Information Networks, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 155-164, 2002.
[8] A. Ladd, K. Bekris, G. Marceau, A. Rudys, L. Kavraki, and D. Wallach, "Robotics-Based Location Sensing Using Wireless Ethernet," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 227-238, Sept. 2002.
[9] A. Howard, S. Siddiqi, and G. Sukhatme, "An Experimental Study of Localization Using Wireless Ethernet," Proc. Int'l Conf. Field and Service Robotics, pp. 201-206, 2003.
[10] K. Kaemarungsi and P. Krishnamurthy, "Properties of Indoor Received Signal Strength for WLAN Location Fingerprinting," Proc. First Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services (MobiQuitous '04), pp. 14-23, 2004.
[11] A. Awad, T. Frunzke, and F. Dressler, "Adaptive Distance estimation and Localization in wsn Using rssi Measures," Proc. 10th EUROMICRO Conf. Digital System Design - Architectures, Methods and Tools (DSD '07), pp. 471-478, Aug. 2007.
[12] H.L. Van Trees, Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Part I. John Wiley & Sons, 1968.
[13] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1996.
[14] W.L. Stutzman and G.A. Theile, Antenna Theory and Design. John Wiley & Sons, 1981.
[15] A.V. Oppenheim and R.W. Schafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing. Prentice Hall, 2009.
[16] Chipcon Products from Texas Instruments, CC2431: System-on-Chip for 2.4 GHz ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 with Location Engine, Sept. 2005.
[17] N. Lomb, "Least-Squares Frequency Analysis of Unequally Spaced Data," Astrophysics and Space Science, vol. 39, pp. 447-462, 1976.
[18] A. Gunawardana and W. Byrne, "Convergence Theorems for Generalized Alternating Minimization Procedures," J. Machine Learning Research, vol. 6, pp. 2049-2073, 2005.
[19] "Sensing and Processing Across Networks at Utah," http://span.ece.utah.eduspin, 2011.
[20] S. Miller and D. Childers, Probability and Random Processes: With Applications to Signal Processing and Communications. Academic, 2004.
[21] S.M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing. Prentice Hall, 1993.
[22] M. Friedmann, T. Stamer, and A. Pentland, "Device Synchronization Using an Optimal Linear Filter," Proc. Symp. Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 57-62, 1992.
[23] G. Mao, B. Fidan, and B.D.O. Anderson, "Wireless Sensor Network Localization Techniques," Computer Networks, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2529-2553, 2007.
[24] A. Savvides, C. Han, and M. Strivastava, "Dynamic Fine-Grained Localization in Ad-Hoc Networks of Sensors," Proc. Seventh Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 166-179, 2001.
[25] K. Yedavalli, B. Krishnamachari, S. Ravula, and B. Srinivasan, "Ecolocation: A Sequence Based Technique for RF-Only Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '05), Apr. 2005.
[26] D. Kotz, C. Newport, and C. Elliott, "The Mistaken Axioms of Wireless-Network Research," Technical Report TR2003-467, Dept. of Computer Science, Dartmouth College, http://www.cs. TR2002-467, July 2003.
[27] G. Zhou, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, and J. Stankovic, "Impact of Radio Irregularity on Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiSys, pp. 125-138, 2004.
[28] C. Röhrig and F. Künemund, "Estimation of Position and Orientation of Mobile Systems in a Wireless LAN," Proc. 46th IEEE Conf. Decision and Control, pp. 4932-4937, Dec. 2007.
[29] I.-E. Liao and K.-F. Kao, "Enhancing the Accuracy of WLAN-Based Location Determination Systems Using Predicted Orientation Information," Information Sciences, vol. 178, pp. 1049-1068, 2008.
18 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool