The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.02 - February (2012 vol.11)
pp: 189-203
Rohan Murty , Harvard University, Cambridge
Ranveer Chandra , Microsoft Research, Redmond
Thomas Moscibroda , Microsoft Research, Redmond
Paramvir (Victor) Bahl , Microsoft Research, Redmond
The 2010 FCC ruling on white spaces proposes relying on a database of incumbents as the primary means of determining white space availability at any white space device (WSD). While the ruling provides broad guidelines for the database, the specifics of its design, features, implementation, and use are yet to be determined. Furthermore, architecting a network where all WSDs rely on the database raises several systems and networking challenges that have remained unexplored. Also, the ruling treats the database only as a storehouse for incumbents. We believe that the mandated use of the database has an additional opportunity: a means to dynamically manage the RF spectrum. Motivated by this opportunity, in this paper, we present SenseLess, a database-driven white spaces network. As suggested by its very name, in SenseLess, WSDs rely on a database service to determine white spaces availability as opposed to spectrum sensing. The service, using a combination of an up-to-date database of incumbents, sophisticated signal propagation modeling, and an efficient content dissemination mechanism to ensure efficient, scalable, and safe white space network operation. We build, deploy, and evaluate SenseLess and compare our results to ground truth spectrum measurements. We present the unique system design considerations that arise due to operating over the white spaces. We also evaluate its efficiency and scalability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that identifies and examines the systems and networking challenges that arise from operating a white space network, which is solely dependent on a channel occupancy database.
Networking, wireless, white spaces, mobile computing.
Rohan Murty, Ranveer Chandra, Thomas Moscibroda, Paramvir (Victor) Bahl, "SenseLess: A Database-Driven White Spaces Network", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 2, pp. 189-203, February 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.241
[1] “FCC Frees Up Vacant TV Airwaves for ‘Super Wi-Fi,’ Technologies and Other Technologies,” http:/, 2011.
[2] P. Bahl, R. Chandra, T. Moscibroda, R. Murty, and M. Welsh, “White Space Networking with Wi-Fi like Connectivity,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2009.
[3] S. Gaonkar, J. Li, R.R. Choudhury, L. Cox, and A. Schmidt, “Micro-Blog: Sharing and Querying Content through Mobile Phones and Social Participation,” Proc. ACM MobiSys, 2008.
[4] K. Harrison, S. Mishra, and A. Sahai, “How Much White-Space Capacity Is There?” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '10), 2010.
[5] L.E. Miller, “Propagation Model Sensitivity Study,” contract report, J.S. Lee Assoc., Inc., July 1992.
[6] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall, 2001.
[7] G. Hufford, “The ITS Irregular Terrain Model Algorithm, Version 1.22, The Algorithm,” http://flattop.its.bldrdoc.govitm.html, 2011.
[8] J. Egli, “Radio Propagation above 40 MC over Irregular Terrain,” Proc. IRE, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1383-1391, Oct. 1957.
[9] “OET BULLETIN No. 69, Longley-Rice Methodology for Evaluatinog TV Coverage and Interference,”, Feb. 2004.
[10] “FCC Adopts Rule for Unlicensed Use Of Television White Spaces,” http:/, 2011.
[11] R.E.D. Borth and B. Oberlie, “Considerations for Successful Cognitive Radio Systems in US TV WhiteSpace,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '08), 2008.
[12] V. Otsason, A. Varshavsky, A. LaMarca, and E. de Lara, “Accurate GSM Indoor Localization,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp '05), 2005.
[13] “TVQ TV Database,” FCC Media Bureau,, 2011.
[14] “Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90m Digital Elevation Data,” The CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI), http:/, 2011.
[15] “Shuttle Raar Topography Mission (SRTM) V2,” NASA Jet Propulsion Lab, http://www2.jpl.nasa.govsrtm, 2011.
[16] “The Global Land One-Km Base Elevation Project,” , 2011.
[17] “The Global Land One-Km Base Elevation Project (GLOBE),” , 2011.
[18] “Shuttle Radar Topograph Mission (SRTM),” http://www2.jpl. nasa.go vsrtm/, 2011.
[19] V. Brik, S. Banerjee, M. Gruteser, and S. Oh, “PARADIS: Physical 802.11 Device Identification with Radiometric Signatures,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2008.
[20] Skyhook Wireless, http:/, 2011.
[21] Rosum Corporation, http:/, 2011.
[22] S. Narlanka, R. Chandra, P. Bahl, and I. Ferrell, “A Hardware Platform for Utilizing the TV Bands with a Wi-Fi Radio,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, June 2007.
[23] S. Ratnasamy, A. Ermolinskiy, and S. Shenker, “Revisiting IP Multicast,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2006.
[24] D. Katabi, “The Use of IP Anycast for Building Efficient Multicast,” Proc. Global Telecomm. Conf., 1999.
[25] R. Murty, J. Padhye, A. Wolman, and M. Welsh, “Dyson: An Architecture for Extensible Wireless LANs,” Proc. USENIX Ann. Technical Conf. (ATC '10), 2010.
[26] TV Fool, http:/, 2011.
[27] Show My White Space, http:/, 2011.
[28] H. Kim and K.G. Shin, “In-Band Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Energy Detection or Feature Detection?” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2008.
[29] H. Kim and K.G. Shin, “Fast Discovery of Spectrum Opportunities in Cognitive Radio Networks,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '08), 2008.
[30] D. Cabric, A. Tkachenko, and R.W. Bordersen, “Experimental Study of Spectrum Sensing Based on Energy Detection and Network Cooperation,” Proc. ACM First Int'l Workshop Technology and Policy for Accessing Spectrum (TAPAS '06), 2006.
[31] T. Shu and M. Krunz, “Throughput-Efficient Sequential Channel Sensing and Probing in Cognitive Radio Networks under Sensing Errors,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2009.
[32] D. Cabric, S.M. Mishra, and R.W. Brodersen, “Implementation Issues in Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios,” Proc. Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems, and Computers, Nov. 2004.
[33] K. Woyach, P. Pyapaliand, and A. Sahai, “Can We Incentivize Sensing in a Light-Handed Way?” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '10), 2010.
[34] J. Unnikrishnan and V.V. Veeravalli, “Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Detection for Cognitive Radio,” Proc. Global Telecomm. Conf. (GlobeCom '07), 2007.
[35] A. Ghasemi and E.S. Sousa, “Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Opportunistic Access in Fading Environments,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), 2005.
[36] D. Cabric, A. Tkachenko, and R.W. Brodersen, “Spectrum Sensing Measurements of Pilot, Energy, and Collaborative Detection,” Proc. Military Comm. Conf. (MILCOM '06), Oct. 2006.
[37] J. van de Beek, J. Riihinjarvi, A. Achtzehn, and P. Mahonen, “UHF White Space in Europe A Quantitative Study into the Potential of the 470790 MHz Band,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '11), 2011.
[38] M. Wellens and P. Mahonen, “Lessons Learned from an Extensive Spectrum Occupancy Measurement Campaign and a Stochastic Duty Cycle Model,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Testbeds and Research Infrastructures for the Development of Networks and Communities and Workshops (TRIDENTCOM '09), 2009.
[39] O. Bendov, Y. Wu, C.W. Rhodes, and J.F.X. Browne, “Planning Factors for Fixed and Portable Dttv Reception,” IEEE Trans. Broadcasting, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 209-223, Sept. 2004.
[40] O. Bendov, “Interference to Dttv Reception by First Adjacent Channels,” IEEE Trans. Broadcasting, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 20-30, Mar. 2005.
[41] XG Program Briefing,, 2011.
[42] IEEE DySPAN Standards Committee (DySPAN-SC),, 2011.
[43] Y. Zhao, L. Morales, J. Gaeddert, K.K.J.-S. Um, and J.H. Reed, “Applying Radio Environment Maps to Cognitive Wireless Regional Area Networks,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '07), 2007.
[44] J. Riihijarvi, P. Mahonen, M. Petrova, and V. Kolar, “Enhancing Cognitive Radios with Spatial Statistics: From Radio Environment Maps to Topology Engine,” Proc. Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Comm. (CROWNCOM '09), 2009.
[45] T. Cai, J. van de Beek, J. Nasreddine, M. Petrova, and P. Mahonen, “A TD-LTE Prototype System with Modules for General-Purpose Cognitive Resource Management and Radio-Environmental Mapping,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '11), 2011.
[46] S.D.A. Subramanian, H. Gupta, and M. Buddhikot, “Fast Spectrum Allocation in Coordinated Dynamic Spectrum Access Based Cellular Networks,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '07), 2007.
[47] S. Banerjee, A. Mishra, V. Brik, V. Shrivastava, and P. Bahl, “Towards an Architecture for Efficient Spectrum Slicing,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 2007.
[48] I. Kash, R. Murty, and D. Parkes, “Enabling Spectrum Sharing in Secondary Market Auctions,” Proc. Workshop on the Economics of Networks, Systems and Computation (NetEcon '11), 2011.
[49] D. Gurney, G. Buchwald, L. Ecklund, S. Kuffner, and J. Grosspietsch, “Geo-Location Database Techniques for Incumbent Protection in the TV White Space,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '08), 2008.
[50] F. Perich, R. Foster, P. Tenhula, and M. McHenry, “Experimental Field Test Results on Feasibility of Declarative Spectrum Management,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '08), 2008.
[51] J. Damelin, W.A. Daniel, H. Fine, and G.V. Waldo, “Development of VHF and UHF Propagation Curves for TV and FM Broadcasting,” Technical Report R-6602, FCC, 1966.
[52] C. Phillips, S. Raynel, J. Curtis, S. Bartels, D. Sicker, D. Grunwald, and T. McGregor, “The Efficacy of Path Loss Models for Fixed Rural Wireless Links,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Passive and Active Measurement (PAM '11), 2011.
[53] C. Philips, D. Sicker, and D. Grunwald, “Bounding the Error of Path Loss Models,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '11), 2011.
[54] G.Y. Delisle, J.P. Lefevre, M. Lecours, and J.Y. Chouinard, “Propagation Loss Prediction: A Comparative Study with Application to the Mobile Radio Channel,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 86-96, May 1985.
[55] K. Allsebrook and J.D. Parsons, “Mobile Radio Propagation in British Cities at Frequencies in the VHF and UHF Bands,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 313-323, Nov. 1977.
[56] H.R. Karimi, “Geolocation Databases for White Space Devices in the UHF TV Bands: Specification of Maximum Permitted Emission Levels,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '11), 2011.
4 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool