The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.07 - July (2011 vol.10)
pp: 913-926
Carlos Figuera , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
José Luis Rojo-Álvarez , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Inmaculada Mora-Jiménez , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Alicia Guerrero-Curieses , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Mark Wilby , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Javier Ramos-López , Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada
Indoor location systems based on IEEE 802.11b (WiFi) mobile devices often rely on the received signal strength indicator to estimate the user position. Two key characteristics of these systems have not yet been fully analyzed, namely, the temporal and spatial sampling process required to adequately describe the distribution of the electromagnetic field in indoor scenarios; and the device calibration, necessary for supporting different mobile devices within the same system. By using a previously proposed nonparametric methodology for system comparison, we first analyzed the time-space sampling requirements for WiFi indoor location systems in terms of conventional sampling theory and system performance. We also proposed and benchmarked three new algorithms for device calibration, with increasing levels of complexity and performance. We conclude that feasible time and space sampling rates can be used, and that calibration algorithms make possible the handling of previously unknown mobile devices in the system.
Received signal strength, indoor location, fingerprinting, IEEE 802.11b, device calibration, sampling.
Carlos Figuera, José Luis Rojo-Álvarez, Inmaculada Mora-Jiménez, Alicia Guerrero-Curieses, Mark Wilby, Javier Ramos-López, "Time-Space Sampling and Mobile Device Calibration for WiFi Indoor Location Systems", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.10, no. 7, pp. 913-926, July 2011, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.84
[1] F.B. Abdesslem, L. Iannone, M.D. de Amorim, K. Kabassanov, and S. Fdida, "On the Feasibility of Power Control in Current IEEE 802.11 Devices," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. Workshops, pp. 473-477, Mar. 2006.
[2] D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, S. Biswas, G. Judd, and R. Morris, "Link-Level Measurements from an 802.11b Mesh Network," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, Aug. 2004.
[3] U. Ahmad, A. Gavrilov, S. Lee, and Y.-K. Lee, "Modular Multilayer Perceptron for WLAN Based Localization," Proc. IEEE Int'l Joint Conf. Neural Networks (IJCNN), pp. 3465-3471, July 2006.
[4] Atheros Comm. Inc., WLAN for Home, Office and Metro Wi-Fi,, 2009.
[5] O. Baala and A. Caminada, "WLAN-Based Indoor Positioning System: Experimental Results for Stationary and Tracking MS," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. Technology (ICCT), pp. 1-4, Nov. 2006.
[6] P. Bahl, V.N. Padmanabhan, and A. Balachandran, "Enhancements to the RADAR User Location and Tracking System," Technical Report MSR-TR-2000-12, Microsoft Research, Feb. 2000.
[7] P. Bahl and V. Padmanabhan, "RADAR: A In-Building RF Based User Location and Tracking System," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 775-784, Mar. 2000.
[8] M. Brunato and R. Battiti, "Statistical Learning Theory for Location Fingerprinting in Wireless LANs," Computer Networks, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 825-845, Apr. 2005.
[9] G. Camps-Valls, L. Bruzzone, J. Rojo-Alvarez, and F. Melgani, "Robust Support Vector Regression for Biophysical Variable Estimation from Remotely Sensed Images," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 339-343, July 2006.
[10] X. Chai and Q. Yang, "Reducing the Calibration Effort for Probabilistic Indoor Location Estimation," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 649-662, June 2007.
[11] W. Chin-Liang and C. Yih-Shyh, "An Adaptive Positioning Scheme Based on Radio Propagation Modeling for Indoor WLANs," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC-Spring), vol. 6, pp. 2676-2680, May 2006.
[12] Cisco Systems Inc., Productos Comunicaciones Inalámbricas, , 2009.
[13] B. Efron and R. Tibshirani, An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 1994.
[14] E. Elnahrawy, X. Li, and R. Martin, "The Limits of Localization Using Signal Strength: A Comparative Study," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Sensor and Ad-Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), pp. 406-414, Oct. 2004.
[15] C. Figuera, I. Mora-Jiménez, A. Guerrero-Curieses, J. Rojo-Álvarez, E. Everss, M. Wilby, and J. Ramos-López, "Nonparametric Model Comparison and Uncertainty Evaluation for Signal Strength Indoor Location," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 1250-1264, Sept. 2009.
[16] G. Gaertner and V. Cahill, "Understanding Link Quality in 802.11 Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 55-60, Jan. 2004.
[17] F. Gustafsson and F. Gunnarsson, "Mobile Positioning Using Wireless Networks," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 41-43, July 2005.
[18] A. Haeberlen, E. Flannery, A.M. Ladd, A. Rudys, D.S. Wallach, and L.E. Kavraki, "Practical Robust Localization over Large Scale 802.11 Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 70-84, Oct. 2004.
[19] S. Ito and N. Kawaguchi, "Data Correction Method Using Ideal Wireless LAN Model in Positioning System," Proc. IEEE 17th Int'l Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm., pp. 1-5, Sept. 2006.
[20] K. Kaemarungsi, "Distribution of WLAN Received Signal Strength Indication for Indoor Location Determination," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Wireless Pervasive Computing, pp. 6-11, Jan. 2006.
[21] K. Kaemarungsi and P. Krishnamurthy, "Modeling of Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Location Figerprinting," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 1012-1022, Mar. 2004.
[22] M.B. Kjargaard and C.V. Munk, "Hyperbolic Location Fingerprinting: A Calibration-Free Solution for Handling Differences in Signal Strength," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm., pp. 110-116, Mar. 2008.
[23] D. Kotz, C. Newport, and C. Elliott, "The Mistaken Axioms of Wireless Network Research," Technical Report TR2003-467, Dept. of Computer Science, Dartmouth College, July 2003.
[24] A.S. Krishnakumar and P. Krishnan, "The Theory and Practice of Signal Strength-Based Location Estimation," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing, p. 10, Dec. 2005.
[25] M. Kurth, A. Zubow, and J. Redlich, "Multi-Channel Link-Level Measurements in 802.11 Mesh Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. and Mobile Computing, pp. 937-944, July 2006.
[26] A. Kushki and A.V.K.N. Plataniotis, "Kernel-Based Positioning in Wireless Local Area Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 689-705, June 2007.
[27] T.-N. Lin and P.-C. Lin, "Performance Comparison of Indoor Positioning Techniques Based on Location Fingerprinting in Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Wireless Networks, Comm. and Mobile Computing, pp. 1569-1574, June 2005.
[28] Linux-Consulting, MadWiFi, http://madwifi.orghome, 2009.
[29] H. Liu, H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, and J. Liu, "Survey of Wireless Indoor Positioning Techniques and Systems," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part C: Applications and Rev., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1067-1080, Nov. 2007.
[30] D. Madigan, E. Einahrawy, R.P. Martin, W.H. Ju, P. Krishnan, and A.S. Krishnakumar, "Bayesian Indoor Positioning Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 1217-1227, Mar. 2005.
[31] Motorola Inc., System Technologies - Productos Comunicaciones Inalámbricas, , 2009.
[32] NDIS Developer's Reference, http:/, 2009.
[33] J. Pan, J. Kwok, Q. Yang, and Y. Chen, "Multidimensional Vector Regression for Accurate and Low-Cost Location Estimation in Pervasive Computing," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1181-1193, Sept. 2006.
[34] IEEE Std. 802.11, Rev. 2007, IEEE Standard for Information Technology, Telecomm. and Information Exchange between Systems, Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, Specific Requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications, IEEE, 2007.
[35] G. Sun, J. Chen, W. Guo, and K.R. Liu, "Signal Processing Techniques in Network-Aided Positioning: A Survey of State-of-the-Art Positioning Designs," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 12-23, July 2005.
[36] C. University, "DBM to RSSI to Percent for the IPW2200 Wireless Driver," technical report, , May 2005.
[37] V. Vapnik, The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory. Springer Verlag, 1995.
[38] G. Wassi, C. Despins, D. Grenier, and C. Nerguizian, "Indoor Location Using Received Signal Strength of IEEE 802.11b Access Point," Proc. IEEE Canadian Conf. Electrical and Computer Eng. (CCECE), pp. 1367-1370, May 2005.
[39] P. Welch, "The Use of Fast Fourier Transform for the Estimation of Power Spectra: A Method Based on Time Averaging over Short, Modified Periodogram," IEEE Trans. Audio and Electroacoustics, vol. AE-15, no. 2, pp. 70-73, June 1967.
[40] I. WildPackets, "Convertign Signal Strength Percentage to dBm Values," technical report, WildPackets Inc., Nov. 2002.
48 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool