The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2011 vol.10)
pp: 544-559
X. Xiang , Microsoft Corporation, Redmond
X. Wang , Stony Brook University, Stony Brook
Y. Yang , Stony Brook University, Stony Brook
Group communications are important in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). Multicast is an efficient method for implementing group communications. However, it is challenging to implement efficient and scalable multicast in MANET due to the difficulty in group membership management and multicast packet forwarding over a dynamic topology. We propose a novel Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol (EGMP). EGMP uses a virtual-zone-based structure to implement scalable and efficient group membership management. A networkwide zone-based bidirectional tree is constructed to achieve more efficient membership management and multicast delivery. The position information is used to guide the zone structure building, multicast tree construction, and multicast packet forwarding, which efficiently reduces the overhead for route searching and tree structure maintenance. Several strategies have been proposed to further improve the efficiency of the protocol, for example, introducing the concept of zone depth for building an optimal tree structure and integrating the location search of group members with the hierarchical group membership management. Finally, we design a scheme to handle empty zone problem faced by most routing protocols using a zone structure. The scalability and the efficiency of EGMP are evaluated through simulations and quantitative analysis. Our simulation results demonstrate that EGMP has high packet delivery ratio, and low control overhead and multicast group joining delay under all test scenarios, and is scalable to both group size and network size. Compared to Scalable Position-Based Multicast (SPBM) [CHECK END OF SENTENCE], EGMP has significantly lower control overhead, data transmission overhead, and multicast group joining delay.
Routing, wireless networks, mobile ad hoc networks, multicast, protocol.
X. Xiang, X. Wang, Y. Yang, "Supporting Efficient and Scalable Multicasting over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.10, no. 4, pp. 544-559, April 2011, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.176
[1] H. Kopka and P.W. Daly, A Guide to LaTeX, third ed. Addison-Wesley, 1999.
[2] L. Ji and M.S. Corson, "Differential Destination Multicast: A MANET Multicast Routing Protocol for Small Groups," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2001.
[3] E.M. Royer and C.E. Perkins, "Multicast Operation of the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol," Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom, pp. 207-218, Aug. 1999.
[4] C. Wu, Y. Tay, and C.-K. Toh, "Ad Hoc Multicast Routing Protocol Utilizing Increasing Id-Numbers (AMRIS) Functional Specification," Internet draft, Nov. 1998.
[5] X. Zhang and L. Jacob, "Multicast Zone Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. Local Computer Networks (LCN '03), Oct. 2003.
[6] C.-C. Chiang, M. Gerla, and L. Zhang, "Forwarding Group Multicast Protocol (FGMP) for Multihop Mobile Wireless Networks," ACM J. Cluster Computing, special issue on mobile computing, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 187-196, 1998.
[7] J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and E. Madruga, "The Core-Assisted Mesh Protocol," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1380-1394, Aug. 1999.
[8] M. Gerla, S.J. Lee, and W. Su, "On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) for Ad Hoc Networks," Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-odmrp-02.txt, 2000.
[9] S. Lee, W. Su, J. Hsu, M. Gerla, and R. Bagrodia, "A Performance Comparison Study of Ad Hoc Wireless Multicast Protocols," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2000.
[10] E. Kaplan, Understanding GPS. Artech House, 1996.
[11] X. Xiang, Z. Zhou, and X. Wang, "Self-Adaptive On Demand Geographic Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[12] P. Bose, P. Morin, I. Stojmenovic, and J. Urrutia, "Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Proc. Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Comm. (DialM '99), Aug. 1999.
[13] B. Karp and H.T. Kung, "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom, pp. 243-254, Aug. 2000.
[14] F. Kuhn, R. Wattenhofer, Y. Zhang, and A. Zollinger, "Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing: Of Theory and Practice," Proc. Int'l Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2003.
[15] J. Li et al., "A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad Hoc Routing," Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom, pp. 120-130, 2000.
[16] S. Giordano and M. Hamdi, "Mobility Management: The Virtual Home Region," technical report, Oct. 1999.
[17] S. Basagni, I. Chlamtac, and V.R. Syrotiuk, "Location Aware, Dependable Multicast for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Computer Networks, vol. 36, nos. 5-6, pp. 659-670, Aug. 2001.
[18] K. Chen and K. Nahrstedt, "Effective Location-Guided Tree Construction Algorithms for Small Group Multicast in MANET," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1180-1189, 2002.
[19] M. Mauve, H. Fubler, J. Widmer, and T. Lang, "Position-Based Multicast Routing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, poster section, June 2003.
[20] M. Transier, H. Fubler, J. Widmer, M. Mauve, and W. Effelsberg, "A Hierarchical Approach to Position-Based Multicast for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 447-460, Aug. 2007.
[21] B. Karp, "Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR),", 2010.
[22] S.-C. M. Woo and S. Singh, "Scalable Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 7, pp. 513-529, 2001.
[23] A. Ballardie, "Core Based Trees (CBT) Multicast Routing Architecture," RFC 2201, Sept. 1997.
[24] University of California, Los Angeles Mobile Systems Laboratory, "GloMoSim,", 2010.
[25] J. Yoon, M. Liu, and B. Noble, "Random Waypoint Considered Harmful," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, no. 4, Apr. 2003.
[26] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, "Scalable Multicasting for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.
[27] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, "Overlay Multicast for MANETs Using Dynamic Virtual Mesh," Wireless Networks, vol. 13, pp. 77-91, Jan. 2007.
[28] V. Devarapalli and D. Sidhu, "MZR: A Multicast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '01), 2001.
[29] S. Wu and K.S. Candan, "GMP: Distributed Geographic Multicast Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. 26th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '06), 2006.
[30] S.M. Das, H. Pucha, and Y.C. Hu, "Distributed Hashing for Scalable Multicast in Wireless Ad Hoc Network," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 347-362, Mar. 2008.
[31] Y.B. Ko and N. Vaidya, "Geocasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Location Based Multicast Algorithms," Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (WMCSA), 1999.
[32] W. Liao, Y. Tseng, K.-L. Lo, and J. Sheu, "Geogrid: A Geocasting Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Grid," J. Internet Technology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 23-32, 2000.
[33] X. Xiang and X. Wang, "An Efficient Geographic Multicast Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), June 2006.
[34] T. Camp and Y. Liu, "An Adaptive Mesh-Based Protocol for Geocast Routing," J. Parallel and Distributed Computing, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 196-213, 2003.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool