The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.10 - October (2010 vol.9)
pp: 1407-1423
Chilukuri Shanti , IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Anirudha Sahoo , IIT Bombay, Mumbai
This paper presents an integrated MAC and routing protocol called Delay Guaranteed Routing and MAC (DGRAM) for delay-sensitive wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. DGRAM is a TDMA-based protocol designed to provide deterministic delay guarantee in an energy-efficient manner. The design is based on slot reuse to reduce latency of a node in accessing the medium, while ensuring that the medium access is contention-free. The transmission and reception slots of nodes are carefully computed so that data is transported from the source toward the sink while the nodes could sleep at the other times to conserve energy. Thus, routes of data packets are integrated into DGRAM, i.e., there is no need for a separate routing protocol in a DGRAM network. We provide a detailed design of time slot assignment and delay analysis of the protocol. We have simulated DGRAM using ns2 simulator and compared the results with those of FlexiTP, which is another TDMA protocol that claims to provide delay guarantee, and with those of a basic TDMA MAC. Simulation results show that the delay experienced by data packets is always less than the analytical delay bound for which the protocol is designed. Also, the TDMA frame size with DGRAM is always lesser compared to that of FlexiTP, which makes the maximum possible delay much lesser than that of FlexiTP. The average delay experienced by packets and the average total energy spent in the network are much lesser in a network using DGRAM than that using FlexiTP or the basic TDMA MAC.
WSNs, delay guarantee, energy efficiency, MAC, TDMA.
Chilukuri Shanti, Anirudha Sahoo, "DGRAM: A Delay Guaranteed Routing and MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 10, pp. 1407-1423, October 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2010.107
[1] A. Rowe, R. Mangharam, and R. Rajkumar, "RT-Link: A Global Time-Synchronized Link Protocol for Sensor Networks," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1201-1220, 2008.
[2] W.L. Lee, A. Datta, and R. Cardell-Oliver, "FlexiTP: A Flexible-Schedule-Based TDMA Protocol for Fault-Tolerant and Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 851-864, June 2008.
[3] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey," Computer Networks, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 393-422, 2002.
[4] A. Woo and D.E. Culler, "A Transmission Control Scheme for Media Access in Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 221-235, 2001.
[5] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, "Medium Access Control with Coordinated Adaptive Sleeping for Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 493-506, June 2004.
[6] A. El-Hoiydi and J.-D. Decotignie, "WiseMAC: An Ultra Low Power MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. First Int'l Workshop Algorithmic Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks (ALGOSENSORS), pp. 18-31, 2004.
[7] G. Lu, B. Krishnamachari, and C.S. Raghavendra, "An Adaptive Energy-Efficient and Low-Latency MAC for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. 18th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '04), pp. 224-233, 2004.
[8] R. Cohen and B. Kapchits, "An Optimal Algorithm for Minimizing Energy Consumption While Limiting Maximum Delay in a Mesh Sensor Network," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 258-266, 2007.
[9] K. Sohrabi and G.J. Pottie, "Performance of a Novel Self-Organization Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., pp. 1222-1226, 1999.
[10] A.P. Chandrakasan, A.C. Smith, and W.B. Heinzelman, "An Application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 660-670, Oct. 2002.
[11] T. Wu and S. Biswas, "Reducing Inter-Cluster TDMA Interference by Adaptive MAC Allocation in Sensor Networks," Proc. First Int'l IEEE WoWMoM Workshop Autonomic Comm. and Computing (ACC '05), pp. 507-511, 2005.
[12] S. Cho, K. Kanuri, J.-W. Cho, J.-Y. Lee, and S.-D. June, "Dynamic Energy Efficient TDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Joint Int'l Conf. Autonomic and Autonomous Systems and Int'l Conf. Networking and Services (ICAS-ICNS), p. 48, 2005.
[13] T. He, J.A. Stankovic, C. Lu, T. Abdelzaher, "SPEED: A Stateless Protocol for Real-Time Communication in Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '03), p. 46, 2003.
[14] E. Felemban, C.-G. Lee, and E. Ekici, "MMSPEED: Multipath Multi-SPEED Protocol for QoS Guarantee of Reliability and Timeliness in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 738-754, June 2006.
[15] D. Lucarelli and I.-J. Wang, "Decentralized Synchronization Protocols with Nearest Neighbor Communication," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 62-68, 2004.
[16] S. Ganeriwal, R. Kumar, and M.B. Srivastava, "Timing-Sync Protocol for Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 138-149, 2003.
[17] M. Maroti, B. Kusy, G. Simon, and A. Ledeczi, "The Flooding Time Synchronization Protocol," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 39-49, 2004.
[18] S. Kulkarni, A. Iyer, and C. Rosenberg, "An Address-Light, Integrated MAC and Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 793-806, Aug. 2006.
[19] S. Chilukuri and A. Sahoo, "DGRAM: A Delay Guaranteed Routing and MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM '08), pp. 1-9, 2008.
[20] A. Savvides, C.-C. Han, and M.B. Strivastava, "Dynamic Fine-Grained Localization in Ad-Hoc Networks of Sensors," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 166-179, 2001.
[21] N.B. Priyantha, H. Balakrishnan, E. Demaine, and S. Teller, "Anchor-Free Distributed Localization in Sensor Networks," Technical Report TR-892, MIT Laboratory for Computer Science, Apr. 2003.
[22] H.M. Khan, S. Olariu, and M. Eltoweissy, "Efficient Single-Anchor Localization in Sensor Networks," Proc. Second IEEE Workshop Dependability and Security in Sensor Networks and Systems (DSSNS), pp. 35-43, 2006.
[23] E. Shih, S.-H. Cho, N. Ickes, R. Min, A. Sinha, A. Wang, and A. Chandrasekharan, "Physical Layer Driven Algorithm and Protocol Design for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 272-287, 2001.
[24] H. Xu, L. Huang, J. Wu, Y. Wang, B. Xu, J. Wang, and D. Wang, "Wireless Fire Monitoring System for Ancient Buildings," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Scalable Information Systems (InfoScale '07), pp. 1-4, 2007.
38 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool