The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.02 - February (2010 vol.9)
pp: 288-304
Sungwon Kim , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Chul-Ho Lee , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Do Young Eun , North Carolina State University, Raleigh
Mobility is the most important component in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). In this paper, we first investigate numerous GPS mobility traces of human mobile nodes and observe superdiffusive behavior in all GPS traces, which is characterized by a “faster-than-linear” growth rate of the mean square displacement (MSD) of a mobile node. We then investigate a large amount of access point (AP) based traces, and develop a theoretical framework built upon continuous time random walk (CTRW) formalism, in which one can identify the degree of diffusive behavior of mobile nodes even under possibly heavy-tailed pause time distribution, as in the case of reality. We study existing synthetic models and trace-based models in terms of the capability of producing various degrees of diffusive behavior, and use a set of Lévy walk models due to its simplicity and flexibility. In addition, we show that diffusive properties make a huge impact on contact-based metrics and the performance of routing protocols in various scenarios, and that existing models such as random waypoint, random direction model, or Brownian motion lead to overly optimistic or pessimistic results when diffusive properties are not properly captured. Our work in this paper, thus, suggests that the diffusive behavior of mobile nodes should be correctly captured and taken into account for the design and comparison study of network protocols.
Mobility models, trace-based models, superdiffusion, mobile ad hoc networks, routing protocols.
Sungwon Kim, Chul-Ho Lee, Do Young Eun, "Superdiffusive Behavior of Mobile Nodes and Its Impact on Routing Protocol Performance", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.9, no. 2, pp. 288-304, February 2010, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.124
[1] F. Bai, N. Sadagopan, and A. Helmy, “Important: A Framework to Systematically Analyze the Impact of Mobility on Performance of Routing Protocols for Adhoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2003.
[2] T. Camp, J. Boleng, and V. Davies, “A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 483-502, 2002.
[3] C. Tuduce and T. Gross, “A Mobility Model Based on WLAN Traces and Its Validation,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2005.
[4] “CRAWDAD,” http:/, 2009.
[5] M. Kim, D. Kotz, and S. Kim, “Extracting a Mobility Model from Real User Traces,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.
[6] M. Shlesinger and G. Zaslavsky, Levy Flights and Related Topics in Physics. Springer, 1994.
[7] H. Berg, Random Walks in Biology. Princeton Univ. Press, 1983.
[8] J. Klafter and I.M. Sokolov, “Anomalous Diffusion Spreads Its Wings,” Physica A, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 179-188, 1983.
[9] E. Weeks, T. Solomon, and H. Swinney, “Observation of Anomalous Diffusion and Lévy Flights,” Lévy Flights and Related Topics in Physics, pp. 51-71, Springer, 1995.
[10] A. Chaintreau, P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, C. Diot, R. Gass, and J. Scott, “Impact of Human Mobility on the Design of Opportunistic Forwarding Algorithms,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.
[11] T. Henderson, D. Kotz, and I. Abyzov, “The Changing Usage of a Mature Campus-Wide Wireless Network,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2004.
[12] M. McNett and G.M. Voelker, “Access and Mobility of Wireless PDA Users,” technical report, Univ. of California San Diego, 2004.
[13] “USC Trace,” http://nile.usc.eduMobiLib/, 2008.
[14] R. Jain, D. Lelescu, and M. Balakrishnan, “Model T: An Empirical Model for User Registration Patterns in a Campus Wireless LAN,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 170-184, 2005.
[15] D. Lelescu, U.C. Kozat, R. Jain, and M. Balakrishnan, “Model T++: An Empirical Joint Space-Time Registration Model,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 61-72, 2006.
[16] R. Jain, A. Shivaprasad, D. Lelescu, and X. He, “Towards a Model of User Mobility and Registration Patterns,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 8, pp. 59-62, 2004.
[17] W. Hsu, T. Spyropoulou, K. Psounis, and A. Helmy, “Modeling Time-Variant User Mobility in Wireless Mobile Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2007.
[18] M. Musolesi and C. Mascolo, “A Community Based Mobility Model for Ad Hoc Network Research,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks: From Theory to Reality (REALMAN), May 2006.
[19] J. Klafter, M. Shlesinger, and G. Zumofen, “Beyond Brownian Motion,” Physics Today, vol. 49, pp. 33-39, 1996.
[20] M. Shlesinger, “Physics in the Noise,” Nature, vol. 411, 2001.
[21] N. Chakravarti, “Beyond Brownian Motion: A Levy Flight in Magic Boots,” Resonance, vol. 9, pp. 50-60, 2004.
[22] F. Bartumeus, F. Peters, S. Pueyo, C. Marrasé, and J. Catalan, “Helical Lévy Walks: Adjusting Searching Statistics to Resource Availability in Microzooplankton,” Proc. Nat'l Academy of Science, vol. 100, no. 22, pp. 12771-12775, Oct. 2003.
[23] G. Viswanathan, V. Afanasyev, S. Buldrev, E. Murphy, P. Prince, and H. Stanley, “Lévy Flight Search Patterns of Wandering Albatrosses,” Nature, vol. 381, no. 30, pp. 413-415, 1996.
[24] A. Marell, J. Ball, and A. Hofgaard, “Foraging and Movement Paths of Female Reindeer: Insights from Fractal Analysis, Correlated Random Walks, and Lévy Flights,” Canadian J. Zoology, vol. 80, pp. 854-865, 2002.
[25] R. Atkinson, C. Rhodes, D. Macdonald, and R. Anderson, “Scale-Free Dynamics in the Movement Patterns of Jackals,” OIKOS, vol. 98, pp. 134-140, 2002.
[26] G. Ramos-Fernandez, J. Mateos, O. Miramontes, G. Cocho, H. Larralde, and B. Ayala Ocozco, “Lévy Walk Patterns in the Foraging Movements of Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi),” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol. 55, pp. 223-230, 2004.
[27] D. Boyer, O. Miramontes, G. Ramos-Fernandez, J. mateos, and G. Cocho, “Modeling the Searching Behavior of Social Monkeys,” Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications, vol. 342, nos.1/2, pp. 329-335, Oct. 2004.
[28] M. Shlesinger and J. Klafter, On Growth and Form. Martinus Nijhoff, 1986.
[29] G. Viswanathan, S. Buldyrev, S. Havlin, M. da Luz, E. Raposo, and H. Stanley, “Optimizing the Success of Random Searches,” Nature, vol. 401, pp. 911-914, 1999.
[30] S. Kim, C. Lee, and D.Y. Eun, “Super-Diffusive Behavior of Mobile Nodes from GPS Traces,” Proc. ACM MobiCom Poster, , 2007.
[31] I. Rhee, M. Shin, S. Hong, K. Lee, and S. Chong, “Human Mobility Patterns and Their Impact on Delay Tolerant Networks,” Proc. Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-VI), Nov. 2007.
[32] “Merosense,” http:/, 2009.
[33] “GPS Trace,” http:/, 2009.
[34] J. Kang, W. Welboourne, B. Stewart, and G. Borriello, “Extracting Places from Traces of Locations,” ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Comm. Rev., vol. 9, pp. 58-68, July 2005.
[35] “NCSU Trace,”, 2009.
[36] “Garmin Website,” http:/, 2009.
[37] S. Bandyopadhyay and E. Coyle, “Stochastic Properties of Mobility Models in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Conf. Information Sciences and System (CISS), 2006.
[38] M. Kim and D. Kotz, “Modeling Users Mobility Among WiFi Access Points,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Wireless Traffic Measurements and Modeling, pp. 19-24, June 2005.
[39] W. Hsu, K. Merchant, C. Hsu, and A. Helmy, “Weighted Waypoint Mobility Model and Its Impact on Ad Hoc Networks,” ACM Mobile Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 9, pp. 59-63, Jan. 2005.
[40] S. Redner, A Guide to First-Passage Processes. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001.
[41] J. Lee and J.C. Hou, “Modeling Steady-State and Transient Behaviors of User Mobility: Formulation, Analysis, and Application,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2006.
[42] B.D. Hughes, Random Walks and Random Environments: I. Oxford Univ. Press, 1995.
[43] J. Klafter and G. Zumofen, “Lévy Statistics in a Hamiltonian System,” Physical Rev. E, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 4873-4877, June 1994.
[44] G. Zumofen and J. Klafter, “Laminar-Localized-Phase Coexistence in Dynamical Systems,” Physical Rev. E, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 1818-1821, Mar. 1995.
[45] W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications II. John Wiley & Sons, 1971.
[46] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C. Raghavendra, “Single-Copy Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks,” Proc. Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), 2004.
[47] S. Jain, K. Fall, and R. Patra, “Routing in a Delay Tolerant Network,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, 2004.
[48] A. Vahdat and D. Becker, “Epidemic Routing for Partially-Connected Ad Hoc Networks,” Technical Report CS-200006, Duke Univ., Apr. 2000.
[49] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C. Raghavendra, “Spray and Wait: An Efficient Routing Scheme for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop, 2005.
[50] A. Lindgren, A. Doria, and O. Schelen, “Probalilistic Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks,” Proc. First Int'l Workshop Service Assurance with Partial and Intermittent Resources (SAPIR), 2004.
[51] J. Burgess, B. Gallagher, D. Jensen, and B.N. Levine, “MaxProp: Routing for Vehicle-Based Disruption-Tolerant Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.
[52] A. Keranen, J. Ott, and T. Karkkainen, “The ONE Simulator for DTN Protocol Evaluation,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Simulation Tools and Techniques (SIMUTools), 2009.
[53] A. Khelil, P. Maron, and K. Rothermel, “Contact-Based Mobility Metrics for Delay-Tolerant Ad Hoc Networking,” Proc. Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecomm. Systems, pp. 435-444, 2005.
[54] D. Aldous and J. Fill, “Reversible Markov Chains and Random Walks on Graphs,” , monograph in preparation, 2010.
[55] T. Spyropoulos, A. Jindal, and K. Psounis, “An Analytical Study of Fundamental Mobility Properties for Encounter-Based Protocols,” Int'l J. Autonomous and Adaptive Comm. Systems, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4-40, 2008.
[56] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, “Efficient Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks: The Single-Copy Case,” IEEE Trans. Networking, vol. 16, no. 1, pp.63-76, Feb. 2008.
[57] T. Karagiannis, J.L. Bourkec, and M. Vojnovic, “Power Law and Exponential Decay of Inter Contact Times between Mobile Devices,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2007.
[58] H. Cai and D.Y. Eun, “Crossing over the Bounded Domain: From Exponential to Power-Law Inter-Meeting Time in MANET,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2007.
[59] P. Hui, A. Chaintreau, J. Scott, R. Gass, J. Crowcroft, and C. Diot, “Pocket Switched Networks and the Consequences of Human Mobility in Conference Environments,” Proc. ACM SIGCOMM First Workshop Delay Tolerant Networking and Related Topics (WDTN '05), 2005.
[60] H. Cai and D.Y. Eun, “Toward Stochastic Anatomy of Inter-Meeting Time Distribution under General Mobility Models,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2008.
15 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool