The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.06 - June (2009 vol.8)
pp: 836-848
Guang Tan , INRIA-Rennes, Rennes
Stephen A. Jarvis , The University of Warwick, Coventry
Anne-Marie Kermarrec , INRIA-Rennes, Rennes
Mobile sensors can relocate and self-deploy into a network. While focusing on the problems of coverage, existing deployment schemes largely oversimplify the conditions for network connectivity: They either assume that the communication range is large enough for sensors in geometric neighborhoods to obtain location information through local communication, or they assume a dense network that remains connected. In addition, an obstacle-free field or full knowledge of the field layout is often assumed. We present new schemes that are not governed by these assumptions, and thus adapt to a wider range of application scenarios. The schemes are designed to maximize sensing coverage and also guarantee connectivity for a network with arbitrary sensor communication/sensing ranges or node densities, at the cost of a small moving distance. The schemes do not need any knowledge of the field layout, which can be irregular and have obstacles/holes of arbitrary shape. Our first scheme is an enhanced form of the traditional virtual-force-based method, which we term the Connectivity-Preserved Virtual Force (CPVF) scheme. We show that the localized communication, which is the very reason for its simplicity, results in poor coverage in certain cases. We then describe a Floor-based scheme which overcomes the difficulties of CPVF and, as a result, significantly outperforms it and other state-of-the-art approaches. Throughout the paper our conclusions are corroborated by the results from extensive simulations.
Sensor networks, mobile, deployment, connectivity.
Guang Tan, Stephen A. Jarvis, Anne-Marie Kermarrec, "Connectivity-Guaranteed and Obstacle-Adaptive Deployment Schemes for Mobile Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.8, no. 6, pp. 836-848, June 2009, doi:10.1109/TMC.2009.31
[1] X. Bai, S. Kumary, D. Xuan, Z. Yun, and T.H. Lai, “Deploying Wireless Sensors to Achieve Both Coverage and Connectivity,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2006.
[2] X. Bai, Z. Yun, D. Xuan, T.H. Lai, and W. Jia, “Deploying Four-Connectivity and Full-Coverage Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[3] W. Cheng, M. Li, K. Liu, Y. Liu, X.-Y. Li, and X. Liao, “Sweep Coverage with Mobile Sensors,” Proc. 22nd IEEE Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS '08), Apr. 2008.
[4] J. Cortes, S. Martinez, T. Karatas, and F. Bullo, “Coverage Control for Mobile Sensing Networks,” IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, vol. 20, no. 2, pp.243-255, 2004.
[5] N. Heo and P.K. Varshney, “Energy-Efficient Deployment of Intelligent Mobile Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics—Part A: Systems and Humans, vol. 1, no. 1, pp.78-92, Jan. 2005.
[6] A. Howard, M.J. Mataric, and G.S. Sukhatme, “Mobile Sensor Network Deployment Using Potential Fields: A Distributed, Scalable Solution to the Area Coverage Problem,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Symp. Distributed Autonomous Robotics Systems (DARS '02), 2002.
[7] Hungarian Algorithm, algorithm , 2009.
[8] Y. Koren and J. Borenstein, “Potential Field Methods and Their Inherent Limitations for Mobile Robot Navigation,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Robotics and Automation, 1991.
[9] J. Lee, A.D. Dharne, and S. Jayasuriya, “Potential Field Based Hierarchical Structure for Mobile Sensor Network Deployment,” Proc. Am. Control Conf., 2007.
[10] B. Liu, P. Brass, and O. Dousse, “Mobility Improves Coverage of Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2005.
[11] V.J. Lumelsky and A.A. Stepanov, “Path-Planning Strategies for a Point Mobile Automaton Moving amidst Unknown Obstacles of Arbitrary Shape,” Algorithmica, vol. 2, pp.403-430, 1987.
[12] S. Poduri and G.S. Sukhatme, “Constrained Coverage for Mobile Sensor Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, 2004.
[13] G. Wang, G. Cao, T.L. Porta, and W. Zhang, “Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[14] G. Wang, G. Cao, and T.L. Porta, “Movement-Assisted Sensor Deployment,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2004.
[15] G. Wang, G. Cao, and T.L. Porta, “A Bidding Protocol for Sensor Deployment,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '03), 2003.
[16] W. Wang, V. Srinivasan, and K.-C. Chua, “Trade Offs Between Mobility and Density for Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2007.
[17] G. Xing, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Lu, R. Pless, and C. Gill, “Integrated Coverage and Connectivity Configuration in Wireless Sensor Networks,” ACM Trans. Sensor Networks, vol. 1, no. 1, pp.36-72, 2005.
[18] S. Yang, M. Li, and J. Wu, “Scan-Based Movement-Assisted Sensor Deployment Methods in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 18, no. 8, pp.1108-1121, Aug. 2007.
[19] O. Younis, M. Krunz, and S. Ramasubramanian, “Coverage without Location Information,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP '07), 2007.
[20] J. Zhao and R. Govindan, “Understanding Packet Delivery Performance in Dense Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM Conf. Ebmedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '03), pp.1-13, 2003.
[21] Y. Zou and K. Chakrabarty, “Sensor Deployment and Target Localization Based on Virtual Forces,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.
21 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool