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Localization is a fundamental and essential issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Existing localization algorithms can be categorized as either range-based or range-free schemes. Range-based schemes are not suitable for WSNs because of their irregularity of radio propagation and their cost of additional devices. In contrast, range-free schemes do not need to use received signal strength to estimate distances and only need simple and cheap hardware, and are thus more suitable for WSNs. However, existing range-free schemes are too costly and not accurate enough or are not scalable. To improve previous work, we present a fully distributed range-free localization scheme for WSNs. We assume that only a few sensor nodes, called anchors, know their locations, and the remaining (normal) nodes need to estimate their own locations by gathering nearby neighboring information. We propose an improved grid-scan algorithm to find the estimated locations of the normal nodes. Furthermore, we derive a vector-based refinement scheme to improve the accuracy of the estimated locations. Analysis, simulation, and experiment results show that our scheme outperforms the other range-free schemes even when the communication radius is irregular.
Sensor networks, Wireless sensor networks

C. Hsu, J. Sheu and P. Chen, "A Distributed Localization Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks with Improved Grid-Scan and Vector-Based Refinement," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. , pp. 1110-1123, 2008.
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