The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.09 - September (2008 vol.7)
pp: 1084-1097
This paper presents a range-free position determination (localization) mechanism for sensors in a three-dimensional wireless sensor network based on the use of flying anchors. In the scheme, each anchor is equipped with a GPS receiver and broadcasts its location information as it flies through the sensing space. Each sensor node in the sensing area then estimates its own location by applying basic geometry principles to the location information it receives from the flying anchors. The scheme eliminates the requirement for specific positioning hardware, avoids the need for any interaction between the individual sensor nodes, and is independent of network densities and topologies. The performance of the localization scheme is evaluated in a series of simulations performed using ns-2 software and is compared to that of the Centroid and Constraint range-free mechanisms. The simulation results demonstrate that the localization scheme outperforms both Centroid and Constraint in terms of a higher location accuracy, a reduced localization time, and a lower beacon overhead. In addition, the localization scheme is implemented on the Tmote Sky for validating the feasibility of the localization scheme.
Wireless sensor networks, localization, range-free, flying anchors, mobile beacon, geometry.
Chia-Ho Ou, Kuo-Feng Ssu, "Sensor Position Determination with Flying Anchors in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.7, no. 9, pp. 1084-1097, September 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2008.39
[1] I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-114, Aug. 2002.
[2] B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins, Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice. Springer-Verlag, 1997.
[3] J. Hightower and G. Borriello, “Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing,” Computer, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 57-66, Aug. 2001.
[4] T.S. Rappaport, J.H. Reed, and B.D. Woerner, “Position Location Using Wireless Communications on Highways of the Future,” IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 33-42, Oct. 1996.
[5] J. Caffery Jr. and G.L. Stüer., “Subscriber Location in CDMA Cellular Networks,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 406-416, May 1998.
[6] R. Klukas and M. Fattouche, “Line-of-Sight Angle of Arrival Estimation in the Outdoor Multipath Environment,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 342-351, Feb. 1998.
[7] L. Cong and W. Zhuang, “Hybrid TDOA/AOA Mobile User Location for Wideband CDMA Cellular Systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 439-447, July 2002.
[8] M. McGuire, K.N. Plataniotis, and A.N. Venetsanopoulos, “Location of Mobile Terminals Using Time Measurements and Survey Points,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 999-1011, July 2003.
[9] J. Hightower, G. Borriello, and R. Want, “SpotON: An Indoor 3D Location Sensing Technology Based on RF Signal Strength,” Technical Report UW CSE 00-02-02, Univ. of Washington, Feb. 2000.
[10] P. Bahl and V.N. Padmanabhan, “RADAR: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '00, pp. 775-784, Mar. 2000.
[11] P. Bergamo and G. Mazzini, “Localization in Sensor Networks with Fading and Mobility,” Proc. 13th IEEE Int'l Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm. (PIMRC '02), pp. 750-754, Sept. 2002.
[12] N.B. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan, “The Cricket Location-Support System,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '00, pp. 32-43, Aug. 2000.
[13] A. Savvides, C.C. Han, and M.B. Srivastava, “Dynamic Fine-Grained Localization in Ad-Hoc Networks of Sensors,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '01, pp. 166-179, July 2001.
[14] A. Savvides, H. Park, and M. Srivastava, “The Bits and Flops of the N-Hop Multilateration Primitive for Node Localization Problems,” Proc. First ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA '02), pp. 112-121, Sept. 2002.
[15] N. Patwari, A.O. Hero, M. Perkins, N.S. Correal, and R.J. O'Dea, “Relative Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2137-2148, Aug. 2003.
[16] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS) Using AoA,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '03, pp. 1734-1743, Mar. 2003.
[17] A. Nasipuri and K. Li, “A Directionality Based Location Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. First ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA '02), pp. 105-111, Sept. 2002.
[18] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “GPS-less Low Cost Outdoor Localization for Very Small Devices,” IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 28-34, Oct. 2000.
[19] N. Bulusu, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “Adaptive Beacon Placement,” Proc. 21st IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing System (ICDCS '01), pp. 489-498, Apr. 2001.
[20] D. Niculescu and B. Nath, “DV Based Positioning in Ad Hoc Networks,” Kluwer J. Telecomm. Systems, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 267-280, Jan. 2003.
[21] C. Savarese, J. Rabaey, and K. Langendoen, “Robust Positioning Algorithms for Distributed Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. USENIX Technical Ann. Conf., pp. 317-327, June 2002.
[22] T. He, C. Huang, B.M. Blum, J.A. Stankovic, and T. Abdelzaher, “Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '03, pp. 81-95, Sept. 2003.
[23] C. Liu, K. Wu, and T. He, “Sensor Localization with Ring Overlapping Based on Comparison of Received Signal Strength Indicator,” Proc. First IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS '04), pp. 516-518, Oct. 2004.
[24] J. Liu, P. Cheung, L. Guibas, and F. Zhao, “A Dual-Space Approach to Tracking and Sensor Management in Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. First ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA '02), pp. 131-139, Sept. 2002.
[25] L. Zhang, X. Zhou, and Q. Cheng, “Landscape-3D: A Robust Localization Scheme for Sensor Networks over Complex 3D Terrains,” Proc. 31st IEEE Int'l Conf. Local Computer Networks (LCN '06), pp. 239-246, Nov. 2006.
[26] J. Liang, J. Shao, Y. Xu, J. Tan, B.T. Davis, and P.L. Bergstrom, “Sensor Network Localization in Constrained 3-D Spaces,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA '06), pp. 49-54, June 2006.
[27] M. Kushwaha, K. Molnar, J. Sallai, P. Volgyesi, M. Maroti, and A. Ledeczi, “Sensor Node Localization Using Mobile Acoustic Beacons,” Proc. Second IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS '05), Nov. 2005.
[28] H.R. Jacobs, Geometry. W.H. Freeman, 1987.
[29] M.L. Sichitiu and V. Ramadurai, “Localization of Wireless Sensor Networks with A Mobile Beacon,” Proc. First IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS '04), pp. 174-183, Oct. 2004.
[30] A. Galstyan, B. Krishnamachari, K. Lerman, and S. Patterm, “Distributed Online Localization in Sensor Networks Using A Mobile Target,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '04), pp. 61-70, Apr. 2004.
[31] K.F. Ssu, C.H. Ou, and H.C. Jiau, “Localization with Mobile Anchor Points in Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1187-1197, May 2005.
[32] P. Corke, R. Peterson, and D. Rus, “Networked Robots: Flying Robot Navigation Using A Sensor Net,” Proc. 20th Int'l Symp. Robotics Research (ISRR '03), Oct. 2003.
[33] NASA Wallops Flight Facility UAV, http:/, 2008.
[34] Berkeley Aerobots, http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edubear/, 2008.
[35] B. Beezley, K6STI, FM Radio Stuff,, 2008.
[36] L.B. Cebik, W4RNL, Antennas: Service and Education, http:/, 2008.
[37] S.-Y. Ni, Y.-C. Tseng, Y.-S. Chen, and J.-P. Sheu, “The Broadcast Storm Problem in A Mobile Ad Hoc Network,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '99, pp. 151-162, Aug. 1999.
[38] B. Williams and T. Camp, “Comparison of Broadcasting Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc '02, pp. 194-205, June 2002.
[39] E. Osipov and C. Tschudin, Improving the Path Optimality of Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Protocols Through De-Coherent RREQ Waves, Technical Report CS-2004-002, Univ. of Basel, Apr. 2004.
[40] The Network Simulator—ns-2,, 2008.
[41] The $ns$ Manual, , 2008.
[42] W. Ye, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '02, pp. 1567-1576, June 2002.
[43] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.-C. Hu, and J.G. Jetcheva, “A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '98, pp. 85-97, Oct. 1998.
[44] G. Zhou, T. He, S. Krishnamurthy, and J.A. Stankovic, “Impact of Radio Irregularity on Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '04), pp. 125-138, June 2004.
[45] Geodetic Survey Division—Geodesy—GPS Accuracy Levels, gps-13_e.html, 2008.
[46] Tmote Sky Datasheet, , 2008.
23 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool