The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.08 - August (2008 vol.7)
pp: 995-1010
In this paper, we present Chameleon an application-level power management approach for reducing energy consumption in mobile processors. By using application domain knowledge, as opposed to OS-level or hardware-level inferred knowledge, Chameleon can substantially reduce CPU energy consumption. By exporting the energy management to user-space, designers can design more flexible and easily portable algorithms and systems, and use multiple energy management policies simultaneously. Specifically, we propose a minimal operating system interface that applications use to obtain global knowledge from the kernel in order to make local decisions. We consider three classes of applications soft real-time, interactive and batch and design userlevel power management strategies for representative applications such as a movie player, a word processor, a web browser, and a batch compiler. Our experiments show that, compared to the traditional system-wide CPU voltage scaling approaches, Chameleon can achieve up to 32-50% energy savings while delivering comparable or better performance to applications. Similarly, Chameleon extracts 9-41% more energy when compared to GraceOS, which uses some application knowledge but operates within the kernel. Further, Chameleon imposes minimal overhead and is effective at scheduling concurrent applications with diverse energy needs.
Energy-aware systems, Multimedia applications and multimedia signal processing, Nomadic computing, Mobile processors, mobile computing, Mobile communication systems
Xiaotao Liu, Prashant Shenoy, Mark D. Corner, "Chameleon: Application-Level Power Management", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.7, no. 8, pp. 995-1010, August 2008, doi:10.1109/TMC.2007.70767
[1] D. Grunwald, P. Levis, K. Farkas, C.B. Morrey III, and M. Neufald, “Policies for Dynamic Clock Scheduling,” Proc. Fourth Usenix Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '00), pp.73-86, Oct. 2000.
[2] K. Govil, E. Chan, and H. Wasserman, “Comparing Algorithms for Dynamic Speed-Setting of a Low-Power CPU,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '95, pp. 13-25, Nov. 1995.
[3] M. Weiser, B. Welch, A. Demers, and S. Shenker, “Scheduling for Reduced CPU Energy,” Proc. First Usenix Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '94), pp. 13-23, Nov. 1994.
[4] M. Fleischmann, “LongRun Power Management—Dynamic Power Management for Crusoe Processors,” technical report, Transmeta, 2001.
[5] K. Flautner and T. Mudge, “Vertigo: Automatic Performance Setting for Linux,” Proc. Fifth Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '02), pp. 105-116, Dec. 2002.
[6] K. Flautner, S. Reinhardt, and T. Mudge, “Automatic Performance Setting for Dynamic Voltage Scaling,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '01, pp.260-271, July 2001.
[7] J.R. Lorch and A.J. Smith, “Improving Dynamic Voltage Scaling Algorithms with Pace,” Proc. ACM SIGMETRICS '01, pp. 50-61, June 2001.
[8] J.R. Lorch and A.J. Smith, “Operating System Modifications for Task-Based Speed and Voltage Scheduling,” Proc. First ACM/Usenix Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '03), pp. 215-229, May 2003.
[9] C. Ellis, “The Case for Higher-Level Power Management,” Proc. Seventh IEEE Workshop Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HOTOS '99), pp. 162-167, Mar. 1999.
[10] W. Yuan and K. Nahrstedt, “Energy-Efficient Soft Real-Time CPU Scheduling for Mobile Multimedia Systems,” Proc. 19th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '03), pp. 149-163, Oct. 2003.
[11] D.R. Engler, M. Kaashoek, and J. O'Toole Jr., “Exokernel: An Operating System Architecture for Application-Level Resource Management,” Proc. 15th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '95), pp. 251-266, Dec. 1995.
[12] G.R. Ganger, D.R. Engler, M.F. Kaashoek, H.M. Briceno, R. Hunt, and T. Pinckney, “Fast and Flexible Application-Level Networking on Exokernel Systems,” ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 49-83, Feb. 2002.
[13] X. Liu, P. Shenoy, and M. Corner, “Chameleon: Application-Controlled Power Management with Performance Isolation,” Technical Report 04-26, Univ. of Massachusets, Amherst, 2004.
[14] G.P. Box, G.M. Jenkins, and G.C. Reinsel, Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control, third ed. Prentice Hall, 1994.
[15] S.K. Card, T.P. Moran, and A. Newell, The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., 1983.
[16] L. Zhong and N.K. Jha, “Energy Efficiency of Handheld Computer Interfaces: Limits, Characterization and Practice,” Proc. Third ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '05), pp. 247-260, June 2005.
[17] W. Yuan and K. Nahrstedt, “Practical Voltage Scaling for Mobile Multimedia Devices,” Proc. 12th ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (Multimedia '04), pp. 924-931, Oct. 2004.
[18] Crusoe TM5600 Processor Data Sheet, Transmeta, http:/www., 2006.
[19] P. Goyal, X. Guo, and H. Vin, “A Hierarchical CPU Scheduler for Multimedia Operating Systems,” Proc. Second Usenix Symp. Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI '96), pp. 107-122, Oct. 1996.
[20] K. Choi, K. Dantu, W. Cheng, and M. Pedram, “Frame-Based Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling for an MPEG Decoder,” Proc. IEEE/ACM Int'l Conf. Computer-Aided Designs (CAD '02), pp.732-737, Nov. 2002.
[21] Z. Lu, J. Hein, M. Humphrey, M. Stan, J. Lach, and K. Skadron, “Control-Theoretic Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling for Multimedia Workloads,” Proc. Third ACM/IEEE Int'l Conf. Compilers, Architecture, and Synthesis for Embedded Systems (CASE '01), pp. 156-163, Oct. 2002.
[22] M. Mesarina and Y. Turner, “Reduced Energy Decoding of MPEG Streams,” Proc. ACM/SPIE Multimedia Computing and Networking Conf. (MMCN '02), pp. 73-84, Jan. 2002.
[23] J. Pouwelse, K. Langendoen, I. Lagendijk, and H. Sips, “Power-Aware Video Decoding,” Proc. 22nd Picture Coding Symp. (PCS '01), pp. 303-306, Apr. 2001.
[24] D. Son, C. Yu, and H. Kim, “Dynamic Voltage Scaling on MPEG Decoding,” Proc. 10th IEEE Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS '01), pp. 633-640, June 2001.
[25] J. Flinn, E. de Lara, M. Satyanarayanan, D. Wallach, and W. Zwaenepoel, “Reducing the Energy Usage of Office Applications,” Proc. IFIP/ACM Int'l Conf. Distributed Systems Platforms (Middleware '01), Nov. 2001.
[26] J. Flinn and M. Satyanarayanan, “Energy-Aware Adaptation for Mobile Applications,” Proc. 17th ACM Symp. Operating Systems Principles (SOSP '99), Dec. 1999.
[27] P. Shenoy and P. Radkov, “Proxy-Assisted Power-Friendly Streaming to Mobile Devices,” Proc. SPIE Conf. Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN '03), pp. 177-191, Jan. 2003.
[28] M. Tamai, T. Sun, K. Yasumoto, N. Shibata, and M. Ito, “Energy-Aware Video Streaming with QoS Control for Portable Computing Devices,” Proc. 14th ACM Int'l Workshop Network and Operating Systems Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV '04), pp. 68-73, June 2004.
[29] E. de Lara, D. Wallach, and W. Zwaenepoel, “Puppeteer: Component-Based Adaptation for Mobile Computing,” Proc. Third Usenix Symp. Internet Technologies and Systems (USITS '01), pp. 159-170, Mar. 2001.
[30] B. Noble, M. Satyanarayanan, and M. Price, “A Programming Interface for Application-Aware Adaptation in Mobile Computing,” Proc. Second Usenix Symp. Mobile and Location-Independent Computing (MLICS '95), pp. 57-66, Apr. 1995.
[31] Q. Wu, P. Juang, M. Martonosi, and D. Clark, “Formal Online Methods for Voltage/Frequency Control in Multiple Clock Domain Microprocessors,” Proc. 11th ACM Int'l Conf. Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS '04), Oct. 2004.
[32] J. Pouwelse, K. Langendoen, and H. Sips, “Application-Directed Voltage Scaling,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 812-826, Oct. 2003.
[33] H. Zeng, C. Ellis, A. Lebeck, and A. Vahdat, “Currentcy: A Unifying Abstraction for Expressing Energy Management Policies,” Proc. 2003 Usenix Ann. Technical Conf., June 2003.
[34] S. Mohapatra, R. Cornea, N. Dutt, A. Nicolau, and N. Venkatasubramanian, “Integrated Power Management for Video Streaming to Mobile Handheld Devices,” Proc. 11th ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia (Multimedia '03), pp. 582-591, Nov. 2003.
17 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool