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In this paper, we present Chameleon an application-level power management approach for reducing energy consumption in mobile processors. By using application domain knowledge, as opposed to OS-level or hardware-level inferred knowledge, Chameleon can substantially reduce CPU energy consumption. By exporting the energy management to user-space, designers can design more flexible and easily portable algorithms and systems, and use multiple energy management policies simultaneously. Specifically, we propose a minimal operating system interface that applications use to obtain global knowledge from the kernel in order to make local decisions. We consider three classes of applications soft real-time, interactive and batch and design userlevel power management strategies for representative applications such as a movie player, a word processor, a web browser, and a batch compiler. Our experiments show that, compared to the traditional system-wide CPU voltage scaling approaches, Chameleon can achieve up to 32-50% energy savings while delivering comparable or better performance to applications. Similarly, Chameleon extracts 9-41% more energy when compared to GraceOS, which uses some application knowledge but operates within the kernel. Further, Chameleon imposes minimal overhead and is effective at scheduling concurrent applications with diverse energy needs.
Energy-aware systems, Multimedia applications and multimedia signal processing, Nomadic computing, Mobile processors, mobile computing, Mobile communication systems

X. Liu, M. D. Corner and P. Shenoy, "Chameleon: Application-Level Power Management," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. , pp. 995-1010, 2007.
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