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In multi-hop wireless sensor networks that are often characterized by many-to-one (convergecast) traffic patterns, problems related to energy imbalance among sensors often appear. Sensors closer to a data sink are usually required to forward a large amount of traffic for sensors farther from the data sink. Therefore, these sensors tend to die early, leaving areas of the network completely unmonitored and reducing the functioning network lifetime. In our study, we explore possible sensor network deployment strategies that maximize sensor network lifetime by mitigating the hot spot around the data sink. Strategies such as variable-range transmission power control, mobile data sink deployment, multiple data sink deployment, non-uniform initial energy assignment and intelligent sensor/relay deployment are investigated. We suggest a general model to analyze and evaluate these strategies. In this model, we not only discover how to maximize network lifetime given certain network constraints, we also consider the factor of extra cost involved in more complex deployment strategies. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis on the maximum achievable sensor network lifetime for different deployment strategies, and it also provides practical cost-efficient sensor network deployment guidelines.
wireless sensor networks, data dissemination, linear programming, deployment strategies

M. Perillo, W. B. Heinzelman and Z. Cheng, "General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. , pp. 484-497, 2007.
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