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We propose a packet level model to investigate the impact of channel error on TCP performance over IEEE 802.11 based multi-hop wireless networks. A Markov renewal approach is used to analyze the behavior of TCP Reno and TCP Impatient NewReno. Compared to previous work, our main contributions are as follows: i) modeling of multiple lossy links; ii) investigating the interactions among TCP, IP and MAC protocol layers, specifically the impact of 802.11 MAC protocol and DSR routing protocol on TCP throughput performance; iii) considering the spatial reuse property of the wireless channel, the model takes into account the different proportions between the interference range and transmission range; iv) adopting more accurate and realistic analysis to fast-recovery process, and showing the dependency of throughput and the risk of experiencing successive fast-retransmits and timeouts on the packet error probability. The analytical results are validated against simulation results using GloMoSim. The results show that the impact of the channel error is reduced significantly due to the packet retransmissions on a per-hop basis and a small bandwidth-delay product of ad hoc networks. The TCP throughput always deteriorates less than ~10% with a packet error rate ranging from 0 to 0.1. Our model also provides a theoretical basis for designing an optimum long retry limit for IEEE 802.11 in ad hoc networks.
TCP Reno, TCP NewReno, TCP modeling, congestion control, ad hoc networks, IEEE 802.11

P. Kong, K. Chua and X. Li, "TCP Performance in IEEE 802.11-Based Ad Hoc Networks with Multiple Wireless Lossy Links," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. , pp. 1329-1342, 2007.
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