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We find that current group communications protocols are far from "one size fits all,” they are typically geared toward and optimized for particular scenarios. Multicasting, in general, works well if the density of group members is sparse and in low mobility; broadcasting, in contrast, works well with a high density of group members and in high mobility. Due to the dynamics of the network, one strategy may be preferable to the other at different times and in different localized regions. In this paper, we first quantify the trade-offs between broadcasting and multicasting and evaluate the suitability of a strategy in various scenarios of deployment. Based on the lessons learned, we design a protocol that adapts in response to the dynamics of the network. We named our protocol Fireworks. Fireworks is a hybrid two-tier multicast/broadcast protocol that provides efficient and lightweight multicast dissemination and self-adapts in response to variations in the density and distribution of group members to provide efficient performance. Fireworks creates pockets of broadcast distribution in areas with many members, while it creates and maintains a multicast backbone to interconnect these dense pockets. Fireworks offers packet delivery statistics comparable to that of a pure multicast scheme but with significantly lower overheads. We also show that Fireworks has a lower level of degrading influence on the performance of coexisting unicast sessions than either traditional multicast or broadcast methods.
Group communications, ad hoc networks, multicast, broadcast.

L. K. Law, M. Faloutsos and S. V. Krishnamurthy, "Understanding and Exploiting the Trade-Offs between Broadcasting and Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. , pp. 264-279, 2007.
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