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In this paper, we present NB-TRACE, which is an energy-efficient network-wide voice broadcasting architecture for mobile ad hoc networks. In the NB-TRACE architecture, the network is organized into overlapping clusters through a distributed algorithm, where the clusterheads create a nonconnected dominating set. Channel access is regulated through a distributed TDMA scheme maintained by the clusterheads. The first group of packets of a broadcast session is broadcast through flooding, where each data rebroadcast is preceded by an acknowledgment to the upstream node. Nodes that do not get an acknowledgment for a predetermined time, except the clusterheads, cease to rebroadcast, which prunes the redundant retransmissions. The connected dominating set formed through this basic algorithm is broken in time due to node mobility. The network responds to the broken links through multiple mechanisms to ensure the maintenance of the connected dominating set. We compare NB-TRACE with four network layer broadcast routing algorithms (Flooding, Gossiping, Counter-based broadcasting, and Distance-based broadcasting) and three medium access control protocols (IEEE 802.11, SMAC, and MH-TRACE) through extensive ns-2 simulations. Our results show that NB-TRACE outperforms other network/MAC layer combinations in minimizing energy dissipation and optimizing spatial reuse, while producing competitive QoS performance.
Low-power design, energy-aware systems, data communications, distributed protocols, network communications, network topology, wireless communication, network protocols, protocol architecture, protocol verification, routing protocols, access schemes, mobile computing, algorithm/protocol design and analysis, mobile communication systems.

W. B. Heinzelman and B. Tavli, "Energy and Spatial Reuse Efficient Network-Wide Real-Time Data Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. , pp. 1297-1312, 2006.
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