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IP-based Radio Access Networks (RAN) are expected to be the next generation access networks in UMTS and CDMA networks. The question of connectivity, i.e., how best to connect base stations to the Radio Network Controllers (RNC) in an IP-based RAN, has not been addressed by researchers. Furthermore, given a connection configuration, an RNC selection algorithm that assigns an incoming call to an RNC is also necessary. This paper examines RAN connectivity and its impact on the performance and resiliency of the wireless network using different RNC selection algorithms. For homogeneous networks, we show that the proposed Min-Load-1 algorithm, which allows at most one hard handoff in order to accommodate each incoming call request, delivers performance close to the optimal algorithm. We also show that allowing a few base stations to connect to two RNCs (a 10 percent increase in the number of links in our network) results in resiliency to RNC failures that is comparable to the resiliency of RANs with full-mesh connectivity. Finally, for heterogeneous networks, we show that the Min-Load-k algorithm (with at most k hard handoffs per call) is effective in handling load imbalances. These results provide strong motivation for deploying IP-based RAN, as they suggest that enhancing current point-to-point RAN with few additional links and allowing a few hard handoffs to accommodate incoming calls can result in significant gains in performance and resiliency.
CDMA IP-based RAN, connectivity, resiliency, RNC selection algorithms.

R. Ramjee, M. Choon Chan and T. Bu, "Connectivity, Performance, and Resiliency of IP-Based CDMA Radio Access Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. , pp. 1103-1118, 2006.
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