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Ad hoc localization of wireless sensor nodes is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks. Despite the recent proposals for the development of ad hoc localization algorithms, the fundamental behavior in systems using measurements has not been characterized. In this paper, we take a first step toward such a characterization by examining the behavior of error inducing parameters in multihop localization systems in an algorithm independent manner. We first derive the Cramé Rao Bound for Gaussian measurement error for multihop localization systems using distance and angular measurements. Later on, we use these bounds on a carefully controlled set of scenarios to study the trends in the error induced by the measurement technology accuracy, network density, beacon node concentration, and beacon uncertainty. By exposing these trends, the goal of this paper is to develop a fundamental understanding of the error behavior that can provide a set of guidelines to be considered during the design and deployment of multihop localization systems.
Index Terms- Multihop node localization, sensor networks, Cramé Rao bounds, position estimation.

R. L. Moses, A. Savvides, W. L. Garber and M. B. Srivastava, "An Analysis of Error Inducing Parameters in Multihop Sensor Node Localization," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. , pp. 567-577, 2005.
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