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We propose two algorithms for real-time tracking of the location and dynamic motion of a mobile station in a cellular network using the pilot signal strengths from neighboring base stations. The underlying mobility model is based on a dynamic linear system driven by a discrete command process that determines the mobile station's acceleration. The command process is modeled as a semi-Markov process over a finite set of acceleration levels. The first algorithm consists of an averaging filter for processing pilot signal strength measurements and two Kalman filters, one to estimate the discrete command process and the other to estimate the mobility state. The second algorithm employs a single Kalman filter without prefiltering and is able to track a mobile station even when a limited set of pilot signal measurements is available. Both of the proposed tracking algorithms can be used to predict future mobility behavior, which can be useful in resource allocation applications. Our numerical results show that the proposed tracking algorithms perform accurately over a wide range of mobility parameter values.
Cellular networks, mobility model, geolocation, pilot signal strengths, Kalman filter.

Z. R. Zaidi and B. L. Mark, "Real-Time Mobility Tracking Algorithms for Cellular Networks Based on Kalman Filtering," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 4, no. , pp. 195-208, 2005.
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