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<p><b>Abstract</b>—In simulations of mobile ad hoc networks, the probability distribution governing the movement of the nodes typically varies over time and converges to a "steady-state” distribution, known in the probability literature as the <it>stationary distribution</it>. Some published simulation results ignore this initialization discrepancy. For those results that attempt to account for this discrepancy, the practice is to discard an initial sequence of observations from a simulation in the hope that the remaining values will closely represent the stationary distribution. This approach is inefficient and not always reliable. However, if the initial locations and speeds of the nodes are chosen from the stationary distribution, convergence is immediate and no data need be discarded. We derive the stationary distributions for location, speed, and pause time for the random waypoint mobility model. We then show how to implement the random waypoint mobility model in order to construct more efficient and reliable simulations for mobile ad hoc networks. Simulation results, which verify the correctness of our method, are included. In addition, implementation of our method for the NS-2 simulator is available.</p>
Simulation of mobile ad hoc networks, random waypoint mobility model, mobility models.

W. Navidi and T. Camp, "Stationary Distributions for the Random Waypoint Mobility Model," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. , pp. 99-108, 2004.
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