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<p><b>Abstract</b>—A location management scheme in wireless networks must effectively handle both user location update and search operations. Replication and forwarding are two well-known techniques to reduce user search and update costs, respectively, with replication being most effective when the call to mobility ratio (<tmath>CMR</tmath>) of the user is high, while forwarding is most effective when the <tmath>CMR</tmath> value is low. Thus, based on the user's <tmath>CMR</tmath>, the system can adopt a <tmath>CMR</tmath> threshold-based scheme such that if the user's <tmath>CMR</tmath> is lower than a threshold, then the system applies the forwarding scheme; otherwise, it applies the replication scheme. Applying different location management schemes based on per-user <tmath>CMR</tmath> values introduces undesirable high complexity in managing and maintaining location-related information stored in the system as different system support mechanisms must be applied to different users. In this paper, we quantitatively analyze a hybrid replication with forwarding scheme that can be uniformly applied to all users. The most striking feature of the hybrid scheme is that it can determine and apply the optimal number of replicas and forwarding chain length on a per-user basis to minimize the communication cost due to location management operations while still being able to use the same data structure and algorithm to execute location management operations in a uniform way for all users. We develop a stochastic Petri net model to help gather this information and show how the information obtained statically can be used efficiently by the system at runtime to determine the optimal number of replicas and forwarding chain length when given a user's profile. We show that the proposed hybrid scheme outperforms both pure replication and forwarding schemes, as well as the <tmath>CMR</tmath> threshold-based scheme under all <tmath>CMR</tmath> values.</p>
Mobile computing, location management, personal communication services, replication, forwarding, Petri net, performance evaluation.

I. Chen and B. Gu, "Quantitative Analysis of a Hybrid Replication with Forwarding Strategy for Efficient and Uniform Location Management in Mobile Wireless Networks," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. , pp. 3-15, 2003.
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