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<p><b>Abstract</b>—We consider ad hoc wireless networks that use directional antennas and have limited energy resources. To explore quantitatively the advantage offered by the use of directional antennas over the case of omnidirectional antennas, we consider the case of connection-oriented multicast traffic. Building upon our prior work on multicasting algorithms, we introduce two protocols that exploit the use of directional antennas and evaluate their performance. We observe significant improvement with respect to the omnidirectional case, in terms of both energy efficiency and network lifetime. Additionally, we show that further substantial increase in the network's lifetime can be achieved by incorporating a simple measure of a node's residual energy into the node's cost function.</p>
Broadcast, multicast, energy efficient, directional antenna, ad hoc network.

G. D. Nguyen, A. Ephremides and J. E. Wieselthier, "Energy-Aware Wireless Networking with Directional Antennas: The Case of Session-Based Broadcasting and Multicasting," in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 1, no. , pp. 176-191, 2002.
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