Issue No. 11 - Nov. (2014 vol. 26)

ISSN: 1041-4347

pp: 2662-2675

ABSTRACT

Users are often faced with the problem of finding complementary items that together achieve a single common goal (e.g., a starter kit for a novice astronomer, a collection of question/answers related to low-carb nutrition, a set of places to visit on holidays). In this paper, we argue that for some application scenarios returning item bundles is more appropriate than ranked lists. Thus we define composite retrieval as the problem of finding k bundles of complementary items. Beyond complementarity of items, the bundles must be valid w.r.t. a given budget, and the answer set of k bundles must exhibit diversity. We formally define the problem and show that in its general form is NP-hard and that also the special cases in which each bundle is formed by only one item, or only one bundle is sought, are hard. Our characterization however suggests how to adopt a two-phase approach (Produce-and-Choose, or PAC) in which we first produce many valid bundles, and then we choose k among them. For the first phase we devise two ad-hoc clustering algorithms, while for the second phase we adapt heuristics with approximation guarantees for a related problem. We also devise another approach which is based on first finding a k-clustering and then selecting a valid bundle from each of the produced clusters (Cluster-and-Pick, or CAP). We compare experimentally the proposed methods on two real-world data sets: the first data set is given by a sample of touristic attractions in 10 large European cities, while the second is a large database of user-generated restaurant reviews from Yahoo! Local. Our experiments show that when diversity is highly important, CAP is the best option, while when diversity is less important, a PAC approach constructing bundles around randomly chosen pivots, is better.

INDEX TERMS

pattern clustering, computational complexity, information retrieval, optimisation,diverse bundle, composite retrieval, item bundles, complementary items, NP-hard problem, two-phase approach, ad-hoc clustering algorithm, approximation guarantee, k-clustering, user generated restaurant reviews, PAC approach,Approximation methods, Complexity theory, Linear programming, Urban areas, Approximation algorithms, Polynomials, Clustering algorithms,diversity, Composite retrieval, maximum edge subgraph, complementarity

CITATION

"Composite Retrieval of Diverse and Complementary Bundles",

*IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering*, vol. 26, no. , pp. 2662-2675, Nov. 2014, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2014.2306678