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Issue No. 09 - September (2011 vol. 23)
ISSN: 1041-4347
pp: 1282-1298
Foto N. Afrati , National Techincal University Athens, Athens
Jeffrey D. Ullman , Stanford University, Stanford
Implementations of map-reduce are being used to perform many operations on very large data. We examine strategies for joining several relations in the map-reduce environment. Our new approach begins by identifying the “map-key,” the set of attributes that identify the Reduce process to which a Map process must send a particular tuple. Each attribute of the map-key gets a “share,” which is the number of buckets into which its values are hashed, to form a component of the identifier of a Reduce process. Relations have their tuples replicated in limited fashion, the degree of replication depending on the shares for those map-key attributes that are missing from their schema. We study the problem of optimizing the shares, given a fixed number of Reduce processes. An algorithm for detecting and fixing problems where a variable is mistakenly included in the map-key is given. Then, we consider two important special cases: chain joins and star joins. In each case, we are able to determine the map-key and determine the shares that yield the least replication. While the method we propose is not always superior to the conventional way of using map-reduce to implement joins, there are some important cases involving large-scale data where our method wins, including: 1) analytic queries in which a very large fact table is joined with smaller dimension tables, and 2) queries involving paths through graphs with high out-degree, such as the Web or a social network.
Map-reduce, joins, parallel computing, query optimization.

J. D. Ullman and F. N. Afrati, "Optimizing Multiway Joins in a Map-Reduce Environment," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 23, no. , pp. 1282-1298, 2011.
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