The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - April (2008 vol.20)
pp: 547-561
An automated Web service discovery requires Web service capability specifications of a high precision. Semantic-based approaches are inherently more precise than conventional keyword-based approaches. This paper proposes to build capability specifications of Web services based on an Environment Ontology, main concepts of which are the environment entities in a particular application domain and their interactions. For each environment entity, there is a tree-like hierarchical state machine modeling the effects which are to be achieved by the Web services on this environment entity. The proposed approach is based on the assumption that the Web service capability specifications, built on the effects of the environment entities, are more accessible and observable. Algorithms for constructing the domain environment ontology and the matchmaking between the Web service capability specifications are presented to show how the Web service discovery is supported. An example on Travel Service is given to illustrate this proposed approach.
Intelligent Web service languages, Ontology design
Puwei Wang, Zhi Jin, Lin Liu, Guangjun Cai, "Building toward Capability Specifications of Web Services Based on an Environment Ontology", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol.20, no. 4, pp. 547-561, April 2008, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2007.190719
[1] S.A. McIlraith, T.C. Son, and H. Zeng, “Semantic Web Services,” IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 46-53, Mar./Apr. 2001.
[2] T.R. Gruber, “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications,” Knowledge Acquisition, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 199-220, 1993.
[3] D. Martin et al., “OWL-S 1.2 Release,”, 2006.
[4] J. Bruijn et al., “Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO),” http:/, 2006.
[5] Web Service Semantics—WSDL-S, W3C, SubmissionWSDL-S/, 2006.
[6] D.L. Parnas and J. Madey, “Functional Documents for Computer Systems,” Science of Computer Programming, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 41-61, 1995.
[7] M. Jackson, “The Meaning of Requirements,” Annals of Software Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 5-21, 1997.
[8] P. Zave and M. Jackson, “Four Dark Corners of Requirements Engineering,” ACM Trans. Software Eng. and Methodology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-30, Jan. 1997.
[9] M. Jackson, Problem Frames: Analyzing and Structuring Software Development Problems. Addison-Wesley, 2001.
[10] Z. Jin, “Revisiting the Meaning of Requirements,” J. Computer Science and Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 32-40, Jan. 2006.
[11] M. Mrissa et al., “Towards a Semantic- and Context-Based Approach for Composing Web Services,” Int'l J. Web and Grid Services, vol. 1, no. 3/4, pp. 268-286, 2005.
[12] P. Wang and Z. Jin, “Web Service Composition: An Approach Using Effect-Based Reasoning,” Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Eng. Service-Oriented Applications: Design and Composition (WESOA '06), pp. 62-73, 2006.
[13] P. Wang, Z. Jin, and L. Liu, “Environment Ontology-Based Capability Specification for Web Service Discovery,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Formal Eng. Methods (ICFEM '06), pp. 185-205, 2006.
[14] P. Wang, Z. Jin, and L. Liu, “An Approach for Specifying Capability of Web Services based on Environment Ontology,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Web Services (ICWS '06), pp. 365-372, 2006.
[15] P. Wang, Z. Jin, and L. Liu, “On Constructing Environment Ontology for Semantic Web Services,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Knowledge Science, Eng. and Management (KSEM '06), pp. 490-503, 2006.
[16] M. Paolucci, T. Kawamura, and T.R. Payne et al., “Semantic Matching of Web Services Capabilities,” Proc. Int'l Semantic Web Conf. (ISWC '02), pp. 333-347, 2002.
[17] L. Bertalanffy, , General System Theory: Essays on Its Foundation and Development. George Braziller, 1968.
[18] A. Maedche, Ontology Learning for the Semantic Web. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.
[19] M.P.E. Heimdahl and N.G. Leveson, “Completeness and Consistency in Hierarchical State-Based Requirements,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 22, no. 6, June 1996.
[20] M. Jarrar, J. Demy, and R. Meersman, “On Using Conceptual Data Modeling for Ontology Engineering,” J. Data Semantics, pp. 185-207, 2003.
[21] M. Jarrar, “Modularization and Automatic Composition of Object-Role Modeling (ORM) Schemes,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Object-Role Modeling (ORM '05), pp. 613-625, Nov. 2005.
[22] Y. Kalfoglou and M. Schorlemmer, “Ontology Mapping: The State of the Art,” The Knowledge Eng. Rev., vol. 18, no. 1, 2003.
[23] A.B. Williams, A. Padmanabhan, and M.B. Blake, “Experimentation with Local Consensus Ontologies with Implications for Automated Service Composition,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 969-981, July 2005.
[24] WSMO Mediators, WSMO,, Dec. 2005.
[25] Web Services Architecture, W3C,, Feb. 2004.
[26] D. Martin et al., “Bringing Semantics to Web Services with OWL-S,” World Wide Web J., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 243-277, 2007.
[27] U. Keller et al., “Semantic Web Service Discovery,” WSMX working draft,, Oct. 2005.
[28] M.D. Di Benedetto, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, and T. Villa, “Model Matching for Finite-State Machines,” IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 46, no. 11, Nov. 2001.
[29] R. Alur, R. Kannan, S. Yannakakis, and M. Yannakakis, “Communicating Hierarchical State Machines,” Proc. 26th Int'l Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP '99), pp.169-178, 1999.
[30] E. Christensen et al., “Web Services Description Language (WSDL) 1.1,” technical report, W3C, , 2001.
[31] L. Clement et al., UDDI Version 3.0,, 2004.
[32] S. Bansal and J.M. Vidal, “Matchmaking of Web Services Based on the DAML-S Service Model,” Proc. Int'l Joint Conf. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (AAMAS '03), 2003.
[33] K. Sycara et al., “LARKS: Dynamic Matchmaking among Heterogeneous Software Agents in Cyberspace,” Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, vol. 5, pp. 173-203, 2002.
[34] B. Medjahed and A. Bouguettaya, “A Multilevel Composability Model for Semantic Web Services,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 954-968, July 2005.
[35] D. Fensel, A. Polleres, and J. Bruijn, Ontology-Based Choreography, WSMO final draft,, Feb. 2007.
[36] S. Agarwal and R. Studer, “Automatic Matchmaking of Web Services,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Web Services (ICWS '06), pp. 45-54, 2006.
[37] A. Wombacher, P. Fankhauser, B. Mahleko, and E.J. Neuhold, “Matchmaking for Business Processes Based on Choreographies,” Int'l J. Web Services Research, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 14-32, 2004.
[38] G. Salaun, L. Bordeaux, and M. Schaerf, “Describing and Reasoning on Web Services using Process Algebra,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Web Services (ICWS '04), pp. 43-50, 2004.
[39] Z. Shen and J. Su, “Web Service Discovery Based on Behavior Signatures,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Services Computing (SCC '05), pp.279-286, 2005.
[40] I. Foster et al., “Modeling Stateful Resources with Web Services,” Version 1.1, ws-resourcews-modelingresources.pdf, 2006.
[41] M. Little, J. Webber, and S. Parastatidis, “Stateful Interactions in Web Services: A Comparison of WS-Context and WS-Resource Framework,” Web Services J., vol. 4, no. 5, May 2004.
[42] Z. Maamar, S.K. Mostefaoui, and H. Yahyaoui, “Toward an Agent-Based and Context-Oriented Approach for Web Services Composition,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 686-697, May 2005.
9 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool