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With the rapid increase in both centralized video archives and distributed WWW video resources, content-based video retrieval is gaining its importance. To support such applications efficiently, content-based video indexing must be addressed. Typically, each video is represented by a sequence of frames. Due to the high dimensionality of frame representation and the large number of frames, video indexing introduces an additional degree of complexity. In this paper, we address the problem of content-based video indexing and propose an efficient solution, called the Ordered VA-File (OVA-File) based on the VA-file. OVA-File is a hierarchical structure and has two novel features: 1) partitioning the whole file into slices such that only a small number of slices are accessed and checked during k Nearest Neighbor (kNN) search and 2) efficient handling of insertions of new vectors into the OVA-File, such that the average distance between the new vectors and those approximations near that position is minimized. To facilitate a search, we present an efficient approximate kNN algorithm named Ordered VA-LOW (OVA-LOW) based on the proposed OVA-File. OVA-LOW first chooses possible OVA-Slices by ranking the distances between their corresponding centers and the query vector, and then visits all approximations in the selected OVA-Slices to work out approximate kNN. The number of possible OVA-Slices is controlled by a user-defined parameter \delta. By adjusting \delta, OVA-LOW provides a trade-off between the query cost and the result quality. Query by video clip consisting of multiple frames is also discussed. Extensive experimental studies using real video data sets were conducted and the results showed that our methods can yield a significant speed-up over an existing VA-file-based method and iDistance with high query result quality. Furthermore, by incorporating temporal correlation of video content, our methods achieved much more efficient performance.
Video retrieval, index structure, high-dimensional data, ordered VA-File, similarity query, kNN.

B. C. Ooi, H. Lu, H. T. Shen and X. Xue, "Hierarchical Indexing Structure for Efficient Similarity Search in Video Retrieval," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 18, no. , pp. 1544-1559, 2006.
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