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The demand for real-time data services is increasing in many applications including e-commerce, agile manufacturing, and telecommunications network management. In these applications, it is desirable to execute transactions within their deadlines, i.e., before the real-world status changes, using fresh (temporally consistent) data. However, meeting these fundamental requirements is challenging due to dynamic workloads and data access patterns in these applications. Further, transaction timeliness and data freshness requirements may conflict. In this paper, we define average/transient deadline miss ratio and new data freshness metrics to let a database administrator specify the desired quality of real-time data services for a specific application. We also present a novel QoS management architecture for real-time databases to support the desired QoS even in the presence of unpredictable workloads and access patterns. To prevent overload and support the desired QoS, the presented architecture applies feedback control, admission control, and flexible freshness management schemes. A simulation study shows that our QoS-aware approach can achieve a near zero miss ratio and perfect freshness, meeting basic requirements for real-time transaction processing. In contrast, baseline approaches fail to support the desired miss ratio and/or freshness in the presence of unpredictable workloads and data access patterns.
Real-time database, deadline miss ratio, sensor data freshness, QoS management.

J. A. Stankovic, S. H. Son and K. Kang, "Managing Deadline Miss Ratio and Sensor Data Freshness in Real-Time Databases," in IEEE Transactions on Knowledge & Data Engineering, vol. 16, no. , pp. 1200-1216, 2004.
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